10-K
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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM TO

Commission File Number 001-40350

 

FTC SOLAR, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware

81-4816270

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

9020 N Capital of Texas Hwy, Suite I-260,

Austin, Texas

78759

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (737) 787-7906

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value

 

FTCI

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. YesNo

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. YesNo

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. YesNo

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). YesNo

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based on the closing price of the shares of common stock on June 30, 2023 was $229,480,101.

The number of shares of registrant’s common stock outstanding as of February 16, 2024, was 125,613,644.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

List hereunder the following documents if incorporated by reference and the Part of the Form 10-K (e.g., Part I, Part II, etc.) into which the document is incorporated:

 


 

Portions of the registrant's 2024 Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders, to be filed on or before April 29, 2024, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.

 

 

 

 


 

https://cdn.kscope.io/afcd403544f17b80ae84f70e7a3b136f-img145323447_0.jpg 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Page

 

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

1

PART I

Item 1.

Business

1

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

9

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

32

Item 1C.

Cybersecurity

32

Item 2.

Properties

33

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

34

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

34

PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

35

Item 6.

[Reserved]

37

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

37

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

56

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

57

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

89

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

90

Item 9B.

Other Information

91

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

91

PART III

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

92

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

92

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

92

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

92

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

92

 

PART IV

 

Item 15.

Exhibit and Financial Statement Schedules

93

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

95

 

 

 

 

SIGNATURES

96

 

 

 

 


 

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Annual Report”) contains forward-looking statements. All statements other than statements of historical or current facts contained in this Annual Report may be forward-looking statements. Statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, business strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations, including, among others, liquidity, growth and profitability strategies and factors and trends affecting our business are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements can be identified in some cases by the use of words such as “believe,” “can,” “could,” “potential,” “plan,” “predict,” “goals,” “seek,” “should,” “may,” “may have,” “would,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “expect,” the negative of these words, other similar expressions or by discussions of strategy, plans or intentions.

The forward-looking statements in this Annual Report are only predictions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements, or industry results, to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. We believe that these factors include, but are not limited to, the factors set forth under Item 1A. "Risk Factors". Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this Annual Report, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

You should read this Annual Report with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. All forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by these cautionary statements.

These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report. Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report, whether as a result of any new information, future events, or otherwise.

 

 

 

PART I

Item 1. Business.

Development of the business

FTC Solar, Inc. (the “Company”, “we”, “our”, or “us”) was founded in 2017 and is incorporated in the state of Delaware. In April 2021, we completed an initial public offering ("IPO"), and our common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “FTCI”.

On June 14, 2022, we closed on the acquisition of all of the outstanding stock of Shanghai Han Xiang New Energy Technology Co., Ltd. ("HX Tracker"), a China-based supplier of tracker systems, in order to extend our international market presence. The purchase price included approximately $3.5 million of cash, paid in July 2022, and the issuance in June 2022 of 1,000,000 shares of the Company's common stock valued at approximately $4.4 million. In addition, as part of the purchase price, we paid the existing debt of HX Tracker owed to the previous owners, totaling approximately $0.8 million as of the acquisition date during the third quarter of 2022. In addition, certain former employees of HX Tracker, who became employees of the Company were eligible to receive up to 2.2 million RSUs which will vest over a two to four-year period based on future performance or service conditions. The goodwill recognized as part of the acquisition is attributable to expected synergies in the acquired company's tracker offering and cross selling opportunities in various international markets and is not deductible for tax purposes.

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On July 1, 2022, we closed on an acquisition of certain assets from Standard Sun, Inc. relating to their pile testing and equipment installation business. Total purchase price was approximately $0.8 million. Two employees of this business became employees of the Company following the acquisition.

In September 2022, we announced the introduction of Pioneer, our new one module-in-portrait ("1P") solar tracker solution. We have also launched a new mounting solution to support the installation and use of U.S.-manufactured thin-film modules by project owners and, in August 2023, we introduced SUNOPS, a cloud-based, tracker-agnostic solar asset monitoring solution allowing asset owners and managers to evaluate the operation and performance of their solar deployments.

We are an emerging growth company, as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups (JOBS) Act. Under the JOBS Act, we elected to use the allowed extended transition period to delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies.

Description of the business

We currently offer trackers and software solutions targeting the utility-scale solar energy markets to current and potential customers in the United States, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, North Africa, South Africa and Australia. Our Voyager tracking system is built upon a self-powered, two-panel in-portrait ("2P") single-axis tracker design utilizing a 60-meter independent row architecture, which we believe provides numerous advantages to our customers. In addition, our recently launched Pioneer 1P solar tracker solution leverages technological advantages of Voyager and provides what we believe to be numerous cost savings benefits to our potential customers relative to other 1P solutions including faster assembly capability, a reduced pile count and embedment depth, and higher slope tolerance.

In addition, in August 2022, we entered into an agreement with a solar contracting company to provide our Voyager 2P solar tracking solution to the distributed generation market for sites providing under 20 megawatts of power in North America. We and our partner company are targeting multiple segments with this turnkey solution offering, including commercial and industrial, community solar programs, projects for independent power producers and smaller one-off projects for sectors such as agriculture.

We have continued to expand our domestic and international footprint, along with our customer outreach efforts, during 2023, which have included various large project awards in the United States and South Africa, and the formation of a Customer Advisory Board, chaired by the president of Powin, a global leader in energy storage systems, in order to support our future expected growth and our efforts to provide a world-class customer experience.

Our customers include project developers, solar asset owners and engineering, procurement and construction ("EPC") contractors that design and build solar energy projects. The vast majority of our revenue in the periods presented in this Annual Report was attributable to sales in the United States and Australia.

Since 2022, we have also been focused on efforts to improve our gross margins through design-to-value initiatives intended to reduce our product cost structure. As a result of these efforts, we achieved our first positive gross margins since our IPO during the first quarter of 2023 and continued to report positive gross margins for each subsequent quarter in 2023.

We currently operate in one business segment, the manufacturing and servicing of solar tracker systems.

We report both product and service revenue in our consolidated financial statements. Product revenue is derived from the sale of solar tracker systems and customized components for those systems, individual part sales for certain specific transactions and the sale of term-based software licenses. Service revenue includes revenue from shipping and handling services, engineering consulting and pile testing services, our subscription-based enterprise licensing model and maintenance and support services in connection with the term-based software licenses.

We incur costs associated with the revenue generated related to (i) the raw materials used in our solar tracker systems, including parts and components, (ii) personnel costs attributable to procurement, installation and delivery of finished products and services, (iii) freight and delivery, (iv) product warranty, (v) insurance, and (vi) customer support.

We currently outsource all manufacturing to contract manufacturing partners. We are focused on growing our U.S. manufacturing supply partners in order to reduce lead times for our customers, as well as other potential benefits. As an example, on February 9, 2023, we entered into a limited liability company agreement (the "LLC Agreement") with Taihua New Energy (Thailand) Co., LTD ("Taihua"), a leading steel fabricator and an existing vendor, and DAYV LLC, for the creation of Alpha Steel LLC ("Alpha Steel"), a Delaware limited liability company dedicated to producing steel components, including torque tubes, for utility-scale solar projects. The Alpha Steel facility, which is located outside of Houston in Sealy, Texas, began limited commercial production late in the fourth quarter of 2023.

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For further discussion, see Note 3 "Equity method investment" included in our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report.

In addition to utilizing Alpha Steel to begin manufacturing several of our products during the latter part of 2023, we also plan to have Alpha Steel manufacture additional products for us throughout 2024 and beyond. Additionally, we plan to continue to partner with other U.S.-based manufacturers to further add to our domestic content capabilities and we will continue to use existing and new international manufacturers to expand our capacity, as needed, to address anticipated increases in future volume.

Based on the U.S. dollar amount of purchase orders we issued during the year ended December 31, 2023, the percentage of our spending involved partners located in the following countries:

Vendor location

 

Year ended December 31, 2023

 

United States

 

 

42

%

Hong Kong

 

 

23

%

China

 

 

19

%

India

 

 

12

%

All other

 

 

4

%

Total

 

 

100

%

 

Market factors

Our global market opportunity is driven by three primary factors: (i) overall growth in utility-scale solar projects, (ii) the increased usage of trackers as the preferred mounting system in utility-scale solar projects and (iii) our ability to execute our product roadmap by providing new products that improve performance and cost efficiency of solar power projects.

Governments across the globe have established policies to support a transition away from fossil fuels and towards low-carbon forms of energy, such as solar power. In the United States, various states have implemented Renewable Portfolio Standards, which require a specified percentage of the electricity sold by utilities to come from renewable sources by a certain date, as described further below. Additionally, the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, passed by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Biden on August 16, 2022, expanded and extended the tax credits and other tax benefits available to solar energy projects and the solar energy supply chain. Other policies and actions of the federal government have had a negative impact on demand through creation of uncertainty as to the ability to import solar modules into the United States, as discussed below. Globally, renewable energy support has accelerated since the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which became effective in 2016. These factors, along with efficiency improvements and cost reductions in the underlying photovoltaic cell technology used in solar energy production, have contributed to solar energy becoming the fastest growing and most affordable source of new electricity in America, according to the U.S. Department of Energy. In the Energy Infrastructure Update Report for December 2023, issued by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ("FERC"), solar provided 49.3% of new domestic generating capacity in 2023 in the United States, more than any other energy source and solar capacity additions in 2023 were 50% greater than the year before. Also, the Short-Term Energy Outlook, February 2024, issued by the U.S. Energy Information Administration ("EIA") forecasts that U.S. solar generation will rise by 43% in 2024.

Solar trackers have been gaining market share versus fixed-tilt mounting systems due to their ability to optimize energy production, accommodate more varied terrain and offer a more attractive return on investment. The United States currently represents the largest portion of the solar tracker market while continued growth is expected in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia and Australia. We believe we are well positioned to benefit from the accelerating adoption of both one and two-panel in-portrait tracker systems, bifacial panels and larger-format or higher-powered bifacial panels.

Our growth strategy is based on (i) increasing our market share in the United States, (ii) continuing our international expansion, (iii) enhancing our tracker product offerings, (iv) reducing our operating costs through operating leverage, (v) expanding our software offering by supporting lean construction, operating, maintenance and lifecycle management and improving the attachment rate of enhanced software to tracker sales, (vi) expanding our sales to the distributed generation market, and (vii) identifying additional strategic acquisitions or other opportunities.

Government policies and regulations

Federal, state, local and foreign government bodies provide incentives to owners, end-users, distributors, system integrators and manufacturers of solar energy systems to promote solar electricity in the form of rebates, tax credits

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and other financial incentives such as system performance payments, payments of renewable energy credits associated with renewable energy generation and manufacturing of specific solar components, as well as exclusions of solar energy systems from property tax assessments.

The most notable incentive program impacting our U.S. business has historically been the investment tax credit ("ITC") for solar energy projects, which allows taxpayers to offset their U.S. federal income tax liability by a certain percentage of their cost basis in solar energy systems placed in service for commercial use. The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, passed by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Biden on August 16, 2022, expanded and extended the tax credits and other tax benefits available to solar energy projects and the solar energy supply chain. ITCs have been extended for such projects through at least 2032 and, depending on the location of a particular project and its ability to satisfy certain labor and domestic content requirements, the ITC percentage can range between 30% and 50%. U.S. manufacturers of specific solar components are now eligible to claim production tax credits as an alternative to the ITC. Implementing regulations for this law are, in certain cases, still being finalized and the impact of these regulations continue to be evaluated by developers of new solar projects and manufacturers of solar components. Our investment in and commitments made to Alpha Steel will allow us to obtain certain benefits as a result of this new production tax credit program.

Renewable portfolio standards (“RPS”) are a set of policies designed to increase the use of renewable energy sources for electricity generation. In general, RPS set a minimum requirement for the share of electricity supply that comes from designated renewable energy resources by a certain date or year. According to information provided by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, as of November 2022, 36 states and the District of Columbia had established an RPS or renewable energy goal. In 12 of those states and the District of Columbia, the requirement is for 100% clean energy by 2050 or earlier. A common feature of RPS policies is a renewable electricity credit trading system that reduces the cost to comply with the RPS.

Other policies and actions of the federal government have had a negative impact on demand through creation of uncertainty as to the ability to import solar modules into the United States.

The Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act ("UFLPA") was passed by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Biden on December 23, 2021. The UFLPA establishes a rebuttable presumption that the importation of any goods, wares, articles, and merchandise mined, produced, or manufactured wholly or in part in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China ("Xinjiang"), or that are produced by certain entities, is prohibited by Section 307 of the Tariff Act of 1930 and that such goods, wares, articles, and merchandise are not entitled to entry to the United States. U.S. Customs and Border Protection ("CBP") began implementing the presumption set out in the UFLPA on June 21, 2022, resulting in new rules for solar module importers and reviews by CBP. There continues to be uncertainty in the market around achieving full compliance with the UFLPA for the importation of solar modules, whether related to sufficient traceability of materials or other factors.

On April 1, 2022, the U.S. Department of Commerce, in response to a petition by Auxin Solar, Inc. ("Auxin"), published a notice initiating an investigation ("the Solar Circumvention Investigation") of claims related to alleged circumvention of U.S. antidumping and countervailing duties ("AD/CVD") by solar manufacturers in certain Southeast Asian countries, in an effort to determine whether or not solar cells and/or modules made in those Southeast Asian nations use parts originating from China in order to circumvent the AD/CVD tariffs. On June 6, 2022, President Biden issued a proclamation allowing U.S. solar deployers the ability to import solar modules and cells from Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam free from certain duties for 24 months, along with other incentives designed to accelerate U.S. domestic production of clean energy technologies. However, on December 29, 2023, Auxin and Concept Clean Energy, Inc. filed suit in the U.S. Court of International Trade challenging the legal basis for the moratorium and implementing regulations. If the suit proves successful, solar module importers could owe retroactive duties on goods that have already cleared customs.

Since 2016, CBP has issued a number of withhold release orders ("WRO") directed at forced labor in China, including WROs directed specifically at activity in Xinjiang. To date, CBP has used the WROs to detain solar panels, which has disrupted the U.S. solar installation market and caused additional uncertainty on future projects.

These policies and actions have resulted in some developers deferring projects due to the uncertainty of panel supply and costs, which negatively impacted our 2022 and 2023 revenue and cash flows and may continue to negatively impact our revenue and our cash flows in 2024.

Environmental, social and governance (“ESG”)

Our mission and core values -

Our mission is to drive energy independence through effective and efficient solar engineering and innovation.

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The following three central pillars are what we were founded on and what currently guides our company:

Sustainability, as we were born from sustainable products
Innovation in the energy transition
Asset-light to provide efficient and flexible capacity

We accelerate the adoption of renewable energy by reducing the cost of construction, simplifying the installation process and improving the energy yield of solar projects, thus supporting the transition away from fossil fuels. We make solar energy generation more efficient and attainable with our software, engineering and differentiated products.

We are committed to the following core values in the way we do business:

Integrity - We do the right thing. We are humble and listen to new ideas. We respect our customers and our teammates.
Accountability - We are all accountable and act with urgency. We are transparent and deliver on our commitments. We come together to solve problems.
Innovation - We collaborate to create world class solutions. We foster a learning culture. We turn great ideas into our future.
Excellence - We are committed to high quality. We plan well and execute flawlessly. We are focused on results.

Environmental management -

We are committed to protecting our environment for the benefit of current and future generations. We design our products and operations to reduce environmental impacts and maximize environmental savings.

Beginning in August 2018, several of our functional groups achieved ISO 14001:2015 certification through third-party assurance. The standard from the International Organization for Standardization ("ISO") details the requirements for an environmental management system that we use to measure and manage our environmental performance. Specifically, our tracker business is ISO 9001:2015, ISO 14001:2015 and ISO 45001:2018 certified, and through Intertek has met the standards necessary to qualify for the UL certification for solar trackers. Our contract manufacturing partners also undergo a qualification process to remain on our approved vendor list, which includes a review and assessment of their environmental performance.

In 2021, we performed a greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions accounting exercise to assess emissions across our global operations, focusing initially on Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions from our owned operations, including purchased electricity and heating. Through this exercise, we identified strategic and operational opportunities to reduce emissions and confirmed most of our GHG emissions are associated with our supply chain.

We continue to shift away from nonrenewable materials, especially those derived from petroleum, such as plastics and Styrofoam, and have established a waste management program to promote collection and processing of recyclable materials within the organization, including seeking out trusted electronics recycling partners. Additionally, we designed our solar tracker offerings to minimize steel content, to require no specialized tools and to reduce labor hours needed for installation and maintenance.

Social -

In addition to providing training to our employees and regular reinforcement of our core values, we have also invested resources in developing a workforce where our teams can enjoy a collaborative environment.

Personal health and safety of each employee is of utmost importance, and we work to continually improve our safety policies and procedures. Our employees do not directly perform solar installations, but we consider the safety of the on-site installers when designing our products and installation procedures.

ISO 45001 is a framework that was developed to address occupational health and safety risks in the workplace using best practices from international labor standards and regulatory agencies. As noted above, we hold ISO 45001:2018 certification and use a separate but aligned qualification process with our contract manufacturing partners.

We provide competitive medical, dental, vision, life and disability insurance and savings plan benefits to our employees and regularly publicly recognize individual and teamwork and innovations in company-wide meetings.

5


 

Governance -

We are governed by a board of directors comprising seven members, including five independent members. Our board has established an audit committee, compensation committee and nominating and governance committee, consisting solely of independent members, to advise the full board on various matters. The audit committee will also periodically meet separately with our independent auditors, without the presence of management, to discuss any matters of importance or concern to our auditors. Additionally, our Director of Internal Audit organizationally reports directly to the audit committee.

Our executive officers serve at the discretion of our board of directors and hold office until his or her successor is duly appointed or until his or her earlier resignation or removal. There are no family relationships among any of our directors or executive officers. The following table sets forth certain information regarding our executive officers and members of our Board of Directors as of the date of this Annual Report:

Name

 

Age

 

Company Position/Board Member Occupation

Executive Officers

 

 

 

 

Sasan Aminpour

 

60

 

Chief Operating Officer

Cathy Behnen

 

60

 

Chief Financial Officer

Patrick M. Cook

 

40

 

Chief Commercial Officer

 

 

 

 

Members of the Board of Directors

 

 

 

 

Shaker Sadasivam
Chairman of the Board

 

64

 

Chief Executive Officer
Auragent Bioscience, LLC

Ahmad Chatila
Director

 

56

 

Managing Partner
Fenice Investment Group

Isidoro Quiroga Cortés
Director

 

35

 

Manager
South Lake One LLC

Lisan Hung
Director

 

55

 

Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary
Enphase Energy, Inc.

Tamara Mullings
Director

 

40

 

Chief Executive Officer
AFARA Governance Inc.

William Aldeen "Dean" Priddy, Jr.
Director

 

63

 

Private Investor, Board Member and Consultant

David Springer
Director

 

55

 

Chief Operating Officer
Recurrent Energy

In addition to our executive officers, our global executive leadership team also includes other individuals, including our General Counsel, Chief Human Resources Officer, Vice President, Business Operations and our Vice President & General Manager, FTC China/SE Asia. Additional biographical information on our executive officers will be set forth in the 2024 Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders and is incorporated herein by reference.

Outlined below under "Human capital resources", is information on the diversity in gender, age and ethnicity of our board of directors, executive leadership team and employee population as of December 31, 2023.

Climate change

Climate change has primarily impacted our business operations by increasing demand for solar power generation and, as a result, for use of our products. While climate change has not resulted in any material negative impact to our operations to date, we recognize the risk of disruptions to our supply chain due to extreme weather events. This has led us to expand the diversity of our supplier base and to partner with more local suppliers to reduce shipping and transportation needs. We are also increasingly partnering with larger scale steel producers rather than smaller suppliers to facilitate scaling of our operations while remaining conscious of the environmental impacts of steel manufacturing as the regulatory landscape around these high-emitting industries evolves. An example of this strategy is our investment in Alpha Steel, a U.S.-based manufacturing partnership with Taihua, a leading steel fabricator.

We also attempt to mitigate the climate-related risks from the use of our products by designing our equipment and systems to have a high-slope tolerance and wind mitigation capabilities, while at the same time reducing the required foundation/pile count needed. This allows our trackers to be installed in increasingly hostile environments with minimal disturbance to the surrounding land.

6


 

Seasonality

Our revenue may be impacted by seasonality and variability related to the timing of construction activity. Based on historical experience, we have experienced lower levels of customer purchasing during winter months in cold-weather climates as it is more costly to our customers to set foundations when the ground is frozen.

Competition

The tracker industry is highly specialized and dominated by a relatively small number of companies. Our direct tracker competitors include Array Technologies, Inc. and Nextracker Inc. We also compete indirectly with manufacturers of fixed-tilt mounting systems. We compete on the basis of product performance and features, total cost of ownership (usually measured by the levelized cost of energy), reliability and duration of product warranty, sales, manufacturing and distribution capabilities, training, customer support and the ability to identify, hire and retain qualified personnel.

Several of our existing and potential competitors are significantly larger than we are and may have greater financial, marketing, manufacturing, distribution and customer support resources, as well as broader brand recognition and greater market penetration, especially in certain markets.

Patents, trademarks and trade names

We maintain a robust program of research and development to continue to enhance and expand our product offerings to our customers. During the year ended December 31, 2023, our research and development costs totaled $7.2 million, including employee salaries and benefit costs.

Our trademarks and trade names include, but are not limited to, Voyager Tracker, Pioneer Tracker, SunDAT, SunPath, SunOPS, Atlas and FTC Solar, which are protected under applicable intellectual property laws. This Annual Report also may contain trademarks, service marks, trade names and copyrights of other companies, which are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks, service marks, trade names and copyrights referred to in this Annual Report are listed without the TM, SM, © and ® symbols, but we will assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensors, if any, to these trademarks, service marks, trade names and copyrights.

At December 31, 2023, we had patents in the following locations:

Locations

 

Patents Granted

 

 

Patents Allowed and Pending for Examination

 

United States

 

 

50

 

 

 

2

 

Australia

 

 

4

 

 

 

1

 

All other

 

 

7

 

 

 

1

 

Total

 

 

61

 

 

 

4

 

Our issued U.S. patents are expected to expire between 2024 and 2043.

Human capital resources

Our year-end headcount by department for each period was as follows:

Department

 

December 31,
2023

 

 

December 31,
2022

 

 

December 31,
2021

 

Operations and support

 

 

106

 

 

 

103

 

 

 

104

 

Research and development

 

 

41

 

 

 

44

 

 

 

47

 

Sales and marketing

 

 

22

 

 

 

20

 

 

 

22

 

General and administrative

 

 

44

 

 

 

54

 

 

 

50

 

Total headcount at period end

 

 

213

 

 

 

221

 

 

 

223

 

At December 31, 2023, approximately 90% of our employees were located in North America and India with the remainder based primarily in China, Australia and other Southeast Asian or Middle Eastern countries. We believe we have a diverse employee base in terms of gender, age, experience, background and ethnicity. As an example, the self-identified gender of our board of directors and global employee workforce at December 31, 2023, was as follows:

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Gender

 

Board of Directors

 

 

Global Executive Leadership Team

 

 

Global
employees

 

Male

 

 

5

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

177

 

Female

 

 

2

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

36

 

Total at period end

 

 

7

 

 

 

7

 

 

 

213

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The age range for our board of directors and global employee workforce at December 31, 2023, was as follows:

Age range of directors and employees

 

Board of Directors

 

 

Global Executive Leadership Team

 

 

Global
employees

 

18 - 24

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

25 - 34

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

61

 

35 - 44

 

 

2

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

90

 

45 - 54

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

39

 

55 and over

 

 

5

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

19

 

Total at period end

 

 

7

 

 

 

7

 

 

 

213

 

Additionally, we gather ethnicity information on our U.S. employees, which at December 31, 2023, was as follows:

Ethnicity

 

Board of Directors

 

 

U.S. based Executive Leadership Team

 

 

United States
employees

 

African American or Black

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

 

Asian

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

16

 

Hispanic or Latinx

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

 

White (not Hispanic or Latino)(a)

 

 

3

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

57

 

Two or more races (not Hispanic or Latino)

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

6

 

Total at period end

 

 

7

 

 

 

6

 

 

 

95

 

(a) - One member of the board of directors self-identifies as Middle Eastern

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We also seek to attract, advance and empower women in advancing their skills and career opportunities through networking, mentorship and professional development. As an example, we sponsor an internal Women's Innovation Network (WIN) which is focused on attracting, empowering and investing in women's skill and career opportunities. This group holds periodic on-line meetings and events open to the entire employee population at various times during each year. At December 31, 2023, women held the following leadership positions within the Company:

Leadership positions held by women

 

Global

 

Women on the board of directors

 

 

2

 

Women on the compensation committee of the board of directors

 

 

2

 

Women on the audit committee of the board of directors

 

 

1

 

Women on the executive leadership team

 

 

2

 

Female program managers

 

 

13

 

Female people managers

 

 

8

 

 

 

Other employee resource groups introduced during 2023 included those to support Hispanic, Black and LGBTQ employees, as well as military veterans.

We use a mix of competitive base salary, performance-based equity compensation awards and other employee benefits to attract, retain and motivate highly qualified employees and executives. The health and safety of our employees are of primary concern. During the COVID-19 pandemic, we took significant steps to protect our workforce, including but not limited to, working remotely when feasible and implementing social distancing protocols consistent with guidelines issued by federal, state and local governments.

8


 

We encourage our employees to take appropriate precautions in accordance with guidance from public health organizations and in following company guidelines to protect their health and safety. Employees are expected to report all instances of unsafe working conditions or safety incidents that occur. We also provide training to employees on safety measures they are expected to follow, as well as providing appropriate personal protective equipment as needed. Our Executive Leadership Team frequently reviews and monitors safety statistics on our workforce and takes appropriate corrective action when necessary.

None of our employees are represented by a labor union, and we consider relations with our employees to be good.

Available information

We disseminate information about the Company through required filings we make with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and, at our discretion, on our website at www.ftcsolar.com.

Information contained on or connected to our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report and should not be considered part of this Annual Report or other filings we make with the SEC. The SEC maintains a site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding reporting issuers. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K are filed electronically and are available free of charge at http://www.sec.gov. Additionally, these reports are available free of charge on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. Paper copies may also be obtained at no cost upon request to our General Counsel at 9020 North Capital of Texas Hwy., Building 1, Suite 260, Austin, TX 78759 or by calling (737) 787-7906.

Item 1A. Risk Factors.

In conducting our business, we may face risks and uncertainties that may interfere with our business objectives. You should carefully consider the following risk factors, as well as all of the other information contained in this Annual Report, including “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report. The risks and uncertainties below are not the only ones that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that adversely affect our business. The occurrence of any of the following risks, or others specified below, could materially and adversely affect our business, strategies, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In such case, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

 

Executive Summary

As noted above, we are subject to a number of risks that in some cases have and moving forward if realized could further adversely affect our business, strategies, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Some of the more significant risks and uncertainties we face include those summarized below. The summary below is not exhaustive and is qualified by reference to the full set of risk factors set forth in this "Risk Factors" section. Please carefully consider all of the information in this Annual Report, including the full set of risks set forth in this "Risk Factors" section, and in our other filings with the SEC before making an investment decision regarding us.

Risks related to our business and our industry – We are a relatively new public company with a history of losses that provides products and services to the solar industry, which is rapidly changing and dependent on being competitive with the price of electricity generated from other sources. We face competition from other companies that may be larger than us and have more financial resources than we have which could impact our ability to compete for new business. We also currently rely on a limited number of customers which may have material adverse effects on our revenue, operating results and cash flows.
Risks related to government regulations and legal compliance – We face risks to the demand for our products from our customers due to changes in, or expiration of, governmental incentives and existing tax credits and other benefits. Additionally, changes in the trade environment and tax treaties between the United States and other countries, such as China, as well as import tariffs and other laws and regulations that impact the ability to import our products or other products necessary for the construction of solar energy projects, have adversely and could continue to adversely affect our business.
Risks related to manufacturing and supply chain – We face risks in meeting the needs of our customers due to our reliance on a limited number of contract manufacturers, including on their ability to obtain raw

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materials in a cost effective and timely manner and to provide timely deliveries of finished products to us and our customers.
Risks related to intellectual property – We face the risk of not being able to adequately protect or defend our intellectual property and property rights in the various countries in which we do business.
Risks related to information technology and data privacy – We face reputational and monetary risks from cybersecurity incidents and the unauthorized disclosure of personal or sensitive data relating to our employees, customers, vendors and others.
Risks related to ownership of our common stock – The holders of our common stock face a risk of loss in their investment in us due to fluctuations in our stock price as a result of changing market conditions, any future issuances of stock, our future financial performance, our corporate legal structure, the substantial ownership in our stock by our directors, executive officers and principal stockholders and the potential for our common stock to not be able to trade in active, liquid markets.
Risks related to health epidemics – We face risks of our business being adversely impacted by the effects of future widespread outbreaks of contagious disease. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic caused significant supply chain disruptions beginning in 2020 that resulted in delays in product delivery and completion and caused increased transportation costs, as well as labor shortages.

 

Our limited operating history and the rapidly changing solar industry make it difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects and we may not achieve profitability in the future.

We have only been in existence since January 3, 2017, and the first installation of Voyager was in the third quarter of 2019. In September 2022, we announced the introduction of Pioneer, our new 1P solar tracker solution. We have also launched a new mounting solution to support the installation and use of U.S.-manufactured thin-film modules by project owners and, in August 2023, we introduced SUNOPS, a cloud-based, tracker-agnostic solar asset monitoring solution allowing asset owners and managers to evaluate the operation and performance of their solar deployments. Our solar tracker systems and other solar energy products and services are used primarily in utility-scale ground-mounted solar energy projects. As a result, our future success depends on continued demand for utility-scale solar energy products and services and the ability of solar equipment manufacturers and suppliers to meet this demand. The solar industry is an evolving industry that has experienced substantial changes in recent years, and consumers and businesses ultimately may not adopt solar energy as an alternative energy source at levels sufficient to grow our business. Some of the factors that may impact the demand for solar energy include:

the cost competitiveness, reliability and performance of solar energy systems compared to conventional and non-solar renewable energy sources and products, including the pricing and availability of component parts (e.g., panels) used in solar energy systems;
the availability, scale and scope of federal, state, local and foreign government subsidies and incentives to support the development and deployment of solar energy products;
the changes in the trade environment and tax treaties between the United States and other countries, such as China, as well as import tariffs and other laws and regulations that impact the ability to import our products or other products necessary for the construction of solar energy projects;
prices of traditional carbon-based energy sources and government subsidies for these sources;
the extent to which the electric power industry and broader energy industries are deregulated to permit broader adoption of solar electricity generation;
investment by end-users of solar energy products, which tends to decrease when economic growth slows; and
the emergence, continuance or success of, or increased government support for, other alternative energy generation technologies and products.

We have encountered and will continue to encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing industries, including unpredictable and volatile revenue. If demand for solar energy fails to continue to develop sufficiently or is not sustained, demand for our products and services will suffer, which would have an adverse impact on our ability to increase our revenue and grow our business.

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We have a history of losses that may continue in the future, and we may not achieve profitability or generate positive cash flow.

We had a net loss of $50.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2023. We have incurred substantial net losses from our inception, and we may not be able to achieve profitability and may incur additional losses in the future. At December 31, 2023, we had an accumulated deficit of $299.1 million. In addition, during the three-year period ended December 31, 2023, we used $240.0 million of cash to fund our operating activities and have $25.2 million of cash and cash equivalents remaining on hand at December 31, 2023.

Our revenue growth may slow or revenue may decline for a number of reasons, including governmental tariffs or restrictions on imports, a decline in demand for our offerings, increased competition, a lack of success in converting sales leads into binding purchase orders, loss of existing customers, project delays by existing customers, our inability to sell software and other complementary products, a decrease in the growth of the solar industry or our market share, future decline in average selling prices of our products and services, our inability to enter certain international markets or our failure to capitalize on growth opportunities. We may not achieve profitability for a number of reasons, including any declines in revenue, as discussed above, as well as increases in costs to manufacture our products, the impact of U.S. trade tariffs and the imposition of additional tariffs applicable to our industry or our products. In addition, we expect to incur additional costs and expenses related to the continued development and expansion of our business, including in connection with any future acquisitions, as well as ongoing development and marketing of our products and services, expanding into new markets and geographies with respect to both manufacturing and sales of our products, maintaining and enhancing our research and development operations, hiring additional personnel, incurring additional overhead costs and incurring greater costs from professional third-party advisors as necessary in connection with the expansion of our business and public company operations. We do not know whether our revenue will grow rapidly enough to absorb such costs and expenses, or the extent of such costs and expenses and their impact on our results of operations. If we fail to generate sufficient revenue to support our operations, we may not be able to achieve profitability or generate sufficient cash flow to meet our financial obligations and our liquidity position will be negatively impacted. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources" for a further discussion of the other factors that may impact our liquidity position.

As a result, we may need to issue additional debt or obtain new equity financing to fund our operations. We may be unable to obtain any desired additional debt or equity financing on terms favorable to us, or at all, depending on interest rates, our stock price, our ability to have our stock continue to trade on active markets and existing market or other conditions. The ability to raise additional financing depends on numerous factors that are outside our control, including general economic and market conditions, the health of financial institutions, investors' and lenders' assessments of our prospects and the prospects of the solar industry in general.

The market for our products and services is highly competitive and rapidly evolving and we expect to face increased competition.

The market for solar energy products and services is highly competitive with relatively low barriers to entry. We principally compete with other solar tracker equipment suppliers, as well as fixed-tilt suppliers. A number of companies have developed or are developing solar tracker systems and other products and services that compete or will compete directly with our products and services in the utility-scale solar energy market. Public competitors in the solar tracker market include, among others, Array Technologies, Inc. and Nextracker Inc. In addition, there are numerous private company competitors, both domestically and internationally. We expect competition to intensify as new competitors enter the market and existing competitors attempt to increase their market shares. Any failure by us to develop or adopt new or enhanced technologies or processes, or to adapt or react to changes in existing technologies, could result in product obsolescence, the loss of competitiveness of our products, including offering lower cost savings or return on investment relative to competing products, decreased revenue and a loss of market share to competitors. For example, until recently we did not have a 1P product offering, which limited the potential projects and markets to which we could sell our products, and therefore had an adverse impact on our revenue during 2022 and 2023.

Several of our existing and potential competitors are significantly larger than we are and may have greater financial, marketing, manufacturing, distribution and customer support resources, as well as broader brand recognition and greater market penetration, especially in certain markets. For example, certain of our competitors have greater capacity and ability to manufacture their products in the United States, which can provide a competitive advantage. In addition, our competitors’ existing or future products may result in higher energy production and lower cost of energy for the solar energy projects to which they are deployed, either broadly or in certain conditions. Some of our competitors have more resources and experience in developing or acquiring new products and technologies and creating market awareness for these offerings, as well as more established customer relationships due to their longer operating histories. Because we are a fairly new participant in the solar tracker market, both in the United States and globally, it is essential that we acquire market share from our competitors, and our failure to do so could impact our ability to continue to grow our business.

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Further, technological advances in the tracker industry are developing rapidly and certain competitors may be able to develop or deploy new products and services more quickly than we can, or that are more reliable or that provide more functionality than ours. For example, we intend to continue to develop and deploy products that can withstand higher wind speeds, are adaptable to irregular site boundaries and undulating terrain and can support larger-format panels; however, our competitors may do so more quickly or effectively. In addition, some of our competitors have the financial resources to offer competitive products at aggressive pricing levels, which could cause us to lose sales or market share, or prevent us from gaining sales or market share, or require us to lower prices for our products and services to compete effectively. If we have to reduce our prices, or if we are unable to offset any future reductions in our average selling prices by increasing our sales volume, reducing our costs and expenses, or introducing new products and services, our revenue and gross profit would suffer.

We also may face competition from some of our customers or potential customers or other participants in the solar energy industry who evaluate our capabilities against the merits of manufacturing products internally or as a complementary offering to their other products. For example, solar panel manufacturers or project developers could develop or acquire competing technology and, in the case of project developers, use such technology in their solar energy projects. Due to the fact that such customers may not seek to make a profit directly from the manufacture of these products, they may have the ability to manufacture competitive products at a lower cost than we would charge such customers. As a result, our customers or potential customers may purchase fewer of our systems or sell products that compete with our systems, which would negatively impact our revenue and gross profit.

Our solar tracker systems and associated products and services may not achieve broader market acceptance, which would prevent us from increasing our revenue and market share.

If we fail to achieve broader market acceptance of our products and services, including international acceptance of Voyager and Pioneer, our ability to increase our revenue, gain market share and achieve profitability would be adversely impacted. Our ability to achieve broader market acceptance for our products and services may be affected by a number of factors, including:

our ability to produce solar tracker systems that compete favorably against other products on the basis of price, quality, cost of installation, overall cost savings, reliability and performance;
the rate and extent of deployment of tracker systems versus fixed-tilt ground-mounted systems within the solar industry, especially in international markets;
our ability to timely introduce new products and complete new designs, and qualify and certify our products;
whether project developers, solar asset owners, EPC contractors and solar financing providers will continue to adopt and finance our solar tracker systems and other products and services, including as a result of the quality, reliability and performance of our tracker systems that are in operation, which have a relatively limited history;
the ability of prospective customers to obtain financing, including tax equity financing, for solar energy installations using our products on acceptable terms or at all;
our ability to develop products and related processes that comply with local standards and regulatory requirements, as well as local content requirements; and
our ability to develop and maintain successful relationships with our customers and contract manufacturers.

In addition, our reputation and our relationship with our customers is paramount to us, and we have invested heavily in building a brand and solutions associated with high quality, differentiated product offerings and strong customer service. We believe that maintaining the quality of our products and the strength of our reputation is critical to our existing customer relationships and our ability to win new customers and achieve broader market acceptance. Any negative publicity can adversely affect our reputation, and may arise from many sources, including actual or alleged misconduct, errors or improper business practices by employees, officers or current or former directors, including for activities external to FTC Solar, employee claims against us, product defects or failures, future litigation or regulatory actions, matters affecting our financial reporting or compliance with SEC or exchange listing requirements, media coverage, whether accurate or not, governance lapses or workplace misconduct. In addition, we and our officers, directors and/or employees could be involved in future litigation or claims which could result in negative publicity and adversely impact our business, even if without merit. Any such reputational damage could reduce demand for our products, undermine the loyalty of our customers or reduce our ability to attract new customers and recruit and retain employees, and adversely impact our ability to increase our market share and revenue.

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A decrease in the price of electricity may harm our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Decreases in the price of electricity, whether in organized electric markets or with contract counterparties, may negatively impact the owners of solar energy projects or make the purchase of solar energy systems less economically attractive and would likely result in lower sales of our products and services. The price of electricity could decrease as a result of:

construction of a significant number of new, lower-cost power generation plants, including plants utilizing natural gas, renewable energy or other generation technologies;
relief of transmission constraints that enable distant, lower-cost generation to transmit energy less expensively or in greater quantities;
reductions in the price of natural gas or other fuels;
utility rate adjustment and customer class cost reallocation;
decreased electricity demand, including from energy conservation technologies and public initiatives to reduce electricity consumption;
development of smart-grid technologies that lower peak energy requirements;
development of new or lower-cost customer-sited energy storage technologies that have the ability to reduce a customer’s average cost of electricity by shifting load to off-peak times; and
development of new energy generation technologies that provide less expensive energy.

If the cost of electricity generated by solar energy installations incorporating our systems or similar tracker systems is high relative to the cost of electricity from other sources, then our business, financial condition and results of operations may be harmed.

Our success in providing panel agnostic versions of our solar tracker systems will depend in part upon our ability to continue to work closely with leading solar panel manufacturers.

We continue to work on variants of our solar tracker systems that enable direct attachment to solar panels produced by various solar panel manufacturers. The market success of such panel agnostic tracker solutions will depend in part on our ability to continue to work closely with solar panel manufacturers to design solar tracker systems that are compatible with their solar panels, including new larger-format solar panels that are entering the market. The solar panel manufacturer market is large and diversified, with many market participants, and we may not be able to effectively work with all necessary solar panel manufacturers on the development of such compatible tracker solutions for a variety of reasons, including differences in marketing or selling strategy, our relatively limited operating history, competitive considerations, engineering challenges, lack of competitive pricing and technological compatibility. For example, prior to September 2022, we did not have a solution for certain thin-film U.S. produced modules, which limited the potential market for our products. In addition, our ability to form effective partnerships with solar panel manufacturers may be adversely affected by the substantial challenges faced by many of these manufacturers due to declining prices and revenue from sales of solar panels and the tariffs in the United States.

If potential owners of solar energy systems incorporating our solar tracker systems are unable to secure financing on acceptable terms, we could experience a reduction in the demand for our products.

Voyager, and more recently Pioneer, are relatively new to the market, with Voyager having achieved product certification and first installation in 2019 and Pioneer being introduced to potential customers in September 2022 and becoming certified in July 2023. We believe our Voyager tracker allowed us to quickly build a strong reputation in the industry for a 2P tracker offering. However, the limited deployment of Voyager, the more recent introduction of Pioneer and the short operating history to date for our systems that have been installed, coupled with our relatively smaller size and capitalization compared to some of our competitors, could result in lenders or tax equity providers refusing to provide the financing to our customers that is necessary for them to purchase solar energy systems based on our product platform on favorable terms, or at all. Additionally, a further increase in interest rates or interest rates maintaining their currently high level, increased inflation or a reduction in the supply of, or change in the market terms offered for project debt or tax equity financing, could make it more difficult for our customers to secure the necessary financing on favorable terms, or at all. Specifically, interest rates have risen significantly during 2022 and 2023 which have greatly increased the cost of constructing solar energy projects that are dependent on third party financing. Any of these events could result in reduced demand for our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

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Our dependence on a limited number of customers as well as the payment terms we agree to with such customers may impair our ability to operate profitably.

We have been dependent in each year since our inception on a small number of customers who generate a significant portion of our business. During the year ended December 31, 2023, four customers accounted for approximately 23%, 19%, 17% and 13%, respectively, of total revenue. During the year ended December 31, 2022, three customers accounted for approximately 23%, 20% and 11%, respectively, of total revenue. During the year ended December 31, 2021, three customers accounted for approximately 37%, 20% and 15%, respectively, of total revenue. Further, our trade accounts receivable are all from companies within or those that serve the solar industry. At December 31, 2023, four customers accounted for approximately 86% of our total receivables, including one customer that accounted for approximately 42% of our total receivables.

As a result, we may have difficulty operating profitably if there is a delay or default in payment by any of our customers, we lose an existing order, an existing order is delayed or postponed or we are unable to generate new orders from new or existing customers. For example, in 2023, the timeline for constructing a number of projects that had been awarded to us was subsequently delayed after being awarded. In addition, we make significant expenditures in fulfilling an order prior to being paid in full by our customer for such order, and therefore any delay or default in payment by a customer may result in our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations being materially adversely affected. Furthermore, to the extent that any one customer or a small number of customers continues to account for a large percentage of our revenue, the loss of any such customer or that customer’s inability to meet its payment obligations could materially affect our ability to operate profitably. Furthermore, in certain circumstances we may not have sufficient recourse to recover our losses in full after a customer fails to meet its payment obligations. As an example, during 2023, we recognized a $7.1 million credit loss provision relating to our expectations of a specific customer being unable to fully satisfy its payment obligations to us. We anticipate that our dependence on a limited number of customers in any given fiscal year, as well as being required to make significant expenditures in fulfilling an order prior to being paid in full by our customer for such order, will continue for the foreseeable future. There is always a risk that existing customers will elect not to do business with us in the future or will experience financial difficulties, and the nature of our business requires us to take credit risk on behalf of our customers. If we do not book more orders with existing customers, or develop relationships with new customers, we may not be able to increase, or even maintain, our revenue, and our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be materially adversely affected.

We invest significant time, resources and management attention to identifying and developing project leads that are subject to our sales and marketing focus, and if we are unsuccessful in converting such project leads (or awarded orders) into binding purchase orders, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

The commercial contracting and bidding process for solar project development is long and has multiple steps and uncertainties. We closely monitor the development of potential sales leads through this process. Project leads may not be converted into binding purchase orders at any stage of the bidding process because either (i) a competitor's product is selected to fulfill some or all of the order due to price, functionality or other reasons or (ii) the project does not progress to the stage involving the purchase of tracker systems. In addition, there is a risk that an awarded order (which is an order for which we are in the process of documenting a contract but for which a contract has not yet been signed, or that have been awarded in writing or verbally with a mutual understanding that the order will be contracted in the future) will not be converted into a binding purchase order, or the time for converting such awarded order to a binding purchase order will be longer than expected. In particular, we have seen awarded orders take a longer period of time than expected to convert to binding purchase orders, and expect this trend to continue in the future in respect of currently awarded orders and future awarded orders, as a result of developers deferring projects due to the uncertainty of panel supply, costs related to UFLPA, AD/CVD and WROs, as described elsewhere, inability to obtain financing, including due to higher interest rates, permitting delays, regulation uncertainty, including related to the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, as well as other factors that impact the project development timeline of our customers which has negatively impacted our 2022 and 2023 revenue and cash flows and may continue to negatively impact our anticipated revenue and our cash flows in 2024. There is also a risk that an awarded order once converted to a binding purchase order will not be subject to the same pricing or timeline as we originally anticipated, or that a customer will subsequently seek to amend, terminate or otherwise breach a purchase order that has been received due to a customer not being able to comply with, or requiring a modification to, terms related to pricing or timeline in such purchase order. In addition, in certain circumstances we receive a purchase order that does not include binding pricing or a firm timeline for product delivery and payment terms, and will require a subsequent change order in order to document such items. In these circumstances, there is a risk that such a change order will not be entered into, will be entered into on a date that is later than expected, or will be entered into on terms that are unfavorable to us, which in either cases could impact the amount of our revenue or the timing thereof. In 2022 and 2023 we have seen customers require amendments or modifications to purchase orders, and have also seen customers breach their obligations under

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purchase orders, as a result of customers being unable to meet timing and payment obligations due to developers deferring projects for the reasons stated above, which have negatively impacted our 2022 and 2023 revenue and cash flows and may continue to negatively impact our anticipated revenue and our cash flow in 2024. If we fail to convert a significant number of project leads that are subject to our sales and marketing focus (or awarded orders) into binding purchase orders, or the time for converting awarded orders to a binding purchase order is longer than expected, or the pricing and timing in binding purchase orders is not as favorable to us as originally anticipated in the awarded order, or a purchase order has to be subsequently amended or supplemented on account of changes or additions related to pricing or product delivery, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Due to the seasonality of construction in the United States, our results of operations may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter, which could make our future performance difficult to predict and could cause our results of operations for a particular period to fall below expectations, resulting in a decline in the price of our common stock.

Our quarterly results of operations are difficult to predict and may fluctuate significantly in the future. Because a substantial majority of our sales since inception have been concentrated in the U.S. market, we have experienced seasonal and quarterly fluctuations in the past as a result of seasonal fluctuations in our customers’ businesses. Additionally, our end-users’ ability to install solar energy systems is affected by weather. For example, during the winter months in cold-weather climates in the United States, construction may be delayed in order to let the ground thaw to reduce costs. Such installation delays can impact the timing of orders for our products. We have expanded into areas with traditionally warmer climates which has resulted in less pronounced seasonal variations in our revenue profile, and we expect this trend to continue as we continue to expand into such areas.

Given that we are an early-stage company operating in a rapidly growing industry, the true extent of historic fluctuations due to the seasonality of construction may have been masked by recent impacts from tariff and other regulatory issues, as well as rising inflation and challenging supply chain conditions and consequently may not be readily apparent from our historical results of operations and may be difficult to predict. Any substantial decrease in revenue would have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and stock price.

We plan to continue expanding into additional international markets, which will expose us to additional regulatory, economic, political, reputational and competitive risks.

We have been, and plan to continue, expanding our operations to other countries, which requires significant resources and management attention and subjects us to regulatory, economic, political and competitive risks in addition to those we already face in the United States. There are significant risks and costs inherent in doing business in international markets, including:

difficulty in establishing and managing international operations, including establishment of local customer service operations and local sales operations, and the associated legal compliance costs;
risks related to the usage of international sales representatives, who we do not presently engage but may in the future, who would not be our employees and would not be under our direct control, including legal compliance risks and reputational risks;
acceptance of our current tracker systems or other solar energy products and services in markets in which they have not traditionally been used;
our ability to accurately forecast product demand and manage manufacturing capacity and production;
willingness of our potential customers to incur a higher upfront capital investment for Voyager than may be required for competing fixed-tilt ground-mounted systems;
our ability to obtain timely qualification and certification of new products in new markets and subsequent adoption challenges, including overcoming potentially higher upfront capital investments compared to competing fixed-tilt ground-mounted systems;
our ability to reduce production costs to price our products competitively;
availability of government subsidies and economic incentives for solar energy products and services;
our ability to protect and enforce intellectual property rights abroad;
compliance with sanctions laws and anti-bribery laws, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act ("FCPA"), by us, our employees, our sales representatives and our business partners;
import and export controls and restrictions and changes in trade regulations;

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tariffs and other non-tariff barriers, tax consequences and local content requirements;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates and the requirements of currency control regulations, which might restrict or prohibit conversion of other currencies into U.S. dollars; and
political or social unrest, military conflict or economic instability in a specific country or region in which we operate.

We have limited experience with certain international regulatory environments and market practices and may not be able to penetrate or successfully operate in the markets we may choose to enter or have entered or otherwise effectively mitigate the regulatory, economic, political, reputational and competitive risks that are inherent when operating in such environments. In addition, we may incur significant expenses as a result of our international expansion, and we may not be successful. For example, we have made investments into the European and Asian markets but are yet to realize material revenue from customers in such markets, and we typically anticipate that we will not realize material revenue from customers in new markets until significant time and expense has been invested, and in some cases we may not realize material revenue at all despite making such investments. Our failure to successfully manage these risks could harm our international operations and have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

We may invest in or acquire other companies or technologies, which could divert our management’s attention, result in dilution to our stockholders, reduce our available cash that could be used for other purposes and otherwise disrupt our operations and harm our results of operations.

We may decide to continue to grow our business through additional investments in or acquisitions of businesses and technologies rather than through internal development. The identification of suitable investment or acquisition candidates can be difficult, time consuming and costly, and we may not be able to successfully complete newly identified investment opportunities or acquisitions, or successfully integrate new acquisitions such that they become long-term profitable operations. The risks we face in connection with investments or acquisitions include, but are not limited to:

diversion of management time and focus from operating our business, as well as use of Company resources (including cash) to addressing acquisition integration challenges;
retention of key employees from the acquired company;
failure to realize long-term value and synergies from investments or acquisitions;
failure to realize incremental revenue or profit that was anticipated to result from investments or acquisitions;
failure to synchronize and integrate the operations of an acquired company with our operations, including blending of corporate cultures;
assumption of unanticipated liabilities for activities of an investee or the acquired company before the acquisition; and
litigation or other claims in connection with the acquisition, including claims from terminated employees, customers, former stockholders or other third parties.

Our failure to address these risks or other risks encountered in connection with currently completed or future investments and acquisitions could cause us to fail to realize the anticipated benefits of these investments or acquisitions and incur unanticipated liabilities, or otherwise harm our business. Currently completed or future investments or acquisitions also could result in dilutive issuances of our equity securities, use of our cash in payment of cash consideration or additional investment capital, the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities or amortization expenses, any of which could harm our financial condition. For example, during 2023, we made an investment of $0.9 million as our initial capital contribution for a 45% interest in Alpha Steel, a newly formed partnership with Taihua and DAYV LLC to produce steel components, including torque tubes, for utility-scale solar projects. The Alpha Steel facility, which is located outside of Houston in Sealy, Texas, began limited commercial production late in the fourth quarter of 2023. We could be required to make up to $2.6 million in additional capital contributions as Alpha Steel expands production. We are also contingently liable for certain unpaid vendor obligations, including issued but unsatisfied purchase orders issued by Alpha Steel totaling approximately $3.4 million as of December 31, 2023. For the year ended December 31, 2023, we recognized a loss of approximately $0.7 million for our equity share of the net operating loss of Alpha Steel during 2023. Any of the risks described above, if realized, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Defects or quality or performance problems in our products could result in loss of customers, reputational damage and decreased revenue, and we may face warranty, indemnity and product liability claims arising from defective products.

Although we set stringent quality standards for our products, they may contain errors or defects, especially when first introduced or when new generations are released. Errors, defects or poor performance can arise due to design flaws, defects in raw materials or components, manufacturing difficulties and quality control failures, which can affect both the quality and the yield of the product. Any actual or perceived errors, defects or poor performance in our products could result in replacements or recalls, remediation requests and warranty claims, shipment delays, rejection of our products, damage to our reputation, lost revenue, diversion of our engineering personnel from our product development efforts, diversion of our sales personnel from sales efforts and increases in customer service and support costs, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Furthermore, defective products may give rise to warranty, indemnity, product liability, liquidated damages or other contractual claims against us that exceed any revenue or profit we receive from the affected products, including claims for damages related to aspects or components of a solar energy project that go beyond the scope of our product offerings. Our limited warranties cover defects in materials and workmanship of our products. As a result, we bear the risk of warranty claims long after we have sold products and recognized revenue. Our accrued reserves for warranty claims are based on available industry data relating to the nature and frequency of product failure rates and, where possible, on our historical experience, which may be limited in certain circumstances. As a result, our assumptions could prove to be materially different from the warranty obligations that we may be required to compensate customers for in the case of defective products. Our failure to accurately predict future warranty claims could result in unexpected volatility in, and have a material adverse effect on, our financial condition. In addition, while we seek to support our warranty obligations with warranties from our contract manufacturers, such warranties may not be of the same scope as our warranty obligations, or we may not be able to effectively enforce our rights thereunder.

If one of our products were to cause injury to someone or cause property damage, including as a result of product malfunctions, defects or improper installation, then we could be exposed to product liability claims. We could incur significant costs and liabilities if we are sued and if damages are awarded against us, which could far exceed the revenue we recognize in connection with the related project. Further, any product liability claim we face could be expensive to defend and could divert management’s attention. The successful assertion of a product liability claim against us could result in potentially significant monetary damages, penalties or fines, subject us to adverse publicity, damage our reputation and competitive position and adversely affect sales of our products. In addition, product liability claims, injuries, defects or other problems experienced by other companies in the solar energy industry could lead to unfavorable market conditions for the industry as a whole and may have an adverse effect on our ability to attract new customers, thus harming our growth and financial performance.

If we fail to retain key personnel or if we fail to attract additional qualified personnel, we may not be able to achieve our anticipated level of growth and our business could suffer.

Our future success and ability to implement our business strategy depends, in part, on our ability to attract and retain key personnel, and on the continued contributions of members of our senior management team and key technical personnel, each of whom would be difficult to replace. All of our employees, including our senior management, are free to terminate their employment relationships with us at any time. Competition for highly skilled individuals with technical expertise is extremely intense in our industry, and we face challenges identifying, hiring and retaining qualified personnel in many areas of our business. Additionally, in response to adverse market and regulatory conditions during much of 2022 and 2023, we made workforce reductions in December 2022 and August 2023, which included certain members of our executive leadership team, and subsequent the Company and our then President and Chief Executive Officer and then Chief Financial Officer agreed that each would step down from their positions, and such executives departed the Company, effective in December 2023. In addition, we converted payment of earned incentive compensation to our employees from cash to stock in mid-2022 and continued that program into 2023. These factors may create additional challenges in retaining our personnel. As we begin to increase our workforce again in the future due to expected growth, integrating new employees into our team could be disruptive to our operations, requiring substantial resources and management attention and ultimately prove unsuccessful. Any inability to retain our current senior management and other key personnel or to attract additional qualified personnel could limit or delay our strategic efforts, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

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Risks Related to Government Regulations and Legal Compliance

The reduction, elimination or expiration of government incentives for, or regulations mandating the use of, as well as corporate commitments to the use of, renewable energy and solar energy specifically could reduce demand for solar energy systems and harm our business.

Federal, state, local and foreign government bodies provide incentives to owners, end-users, distributors, system integrators and manufacturers of solar energy systems to promote solar electricity in the form of rebates, tax credits and other financial incentives such as system performance payments, payments of renewable energy credits associated with renewable energy generation and manufacturing of specific solar components, as well as exclusions of solar energy systems from property tax assessments.

The most notable incentive program impacting our U.S. business has historically been the ITC for solar energy projects, which allows taxpayers to offset their U.S. federal income tax liability by a certain percentage of their cost basis in solar energy systems placed in service for commercial use. The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, passed by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Biden on August 16, 2022, expanded and extended the tax credits and other tax benefits available to solar energy projects and the solar energy supply chain. ITCs have been extended for such projects through at least 2032 and, depending on the location of a particular project and its ability to satisfy certain labor and domestic content requirements, the ITC percentage can range between 30% and 50%. U.S. manufacturers of specific solar components are now eligible to claim production tax credits as an alternative to the ITC. Implementing regulations for this law are, in certain cases, still being finalized and the impact of these regulations continue to be evaluated by developers of new solar projects and manufacturers of solar components. Our investment in and commitments made to Alpha Steel will allow us to obtain certain benefits as a result of this new production tax credit program. We believe this law will bolster and extend future demand for our products in the United States, despite remaining uncertainty about implementing regulations. However, the reduction, elimination or modification (including through implementing regulations) of the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 could reduce demand for solar energy systems. For example, there are growing calls for repeal of the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, as well as proposed regulation to curtail the use of incentives under the act if a solar project of manufacturer has ties to certain foreign nations, including China. The likelihood of such measures being implemented could increase if certain officials are elected, including during the upcoming federal elections in November of 2024. In addition, certain implementing regulations and related processes have to date created uncertainty in the solar energy industry as to the availability of certain tax credits, including the tax credit available for sourcing a solar project with domestic content. Any effort to reduce, eliminate or modify (including through implementing regulations) the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 could have a material adverse impact on our business.

In addition, similar incentives may exist in, or be developed outside of, the United States, which could impact demand for our products and services as we expand our business into foreign jurisdictions. For example, a feed-in-tariff ("FIT") is a type of incentive that pays owners of renewable energy systems, including solar energy systems, a certain amount per unit of electricity they generate and provide to the grid. While FITs are relatively rare as a solar policy mechanism in the United States, they are more common internationally. Our international customers and end-users may have access to FITs, tax deductions and grants toward equipment purchases. Our ability to successfully penetrate new geographic markets may depend on new countries adopting, to the extent such incentives are not currently in place, and maintaining such incentives to promote solar electricity.

The range and duration of these incentives vary widely by jurisdiction. Our customers typically use our systems for utility scale grid-connected electric power generation projects that sell solar power under a power purchase agreement or into an organized electric market. This segment of the solar industry has historically depended in large part on the availability and size of government incentives and regulations mandating the use of renewable energy. Consequently, the reduction, elimination or expiration of government incentives for grid-connected solar electricity or regulations mandating the use of renewable energy may negatively affect the competitiveness of solar electricity relative to conventional and non-solar renewable sources of electricity, and could harm or halt the growth of the solar electricity industry and our business. These subsidies and incentives may expire (i) on a particular date, (ii) end when the allocated funding is exhausted or may be reduced or terminated as solar energy adoption rates increase or as a result of legal challenges, (iii) upon the adoption of new statutes or regulations or (iv) with the passage of time. These reductions or terminations may occur without warning, which would negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Corporate social responsibility efforts, such as net zero emission pledges, have fostered private sector investment in solar energy systems in recent years. To the extent that these corporate policies are redirected away from renewable energy in general or solar energy in particular, our business, financial condition and results of operation may be negatively impacted.

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In addition, federal, state, local and foreign government bodies have implemented various policies that are intended to promote renewable electricity generally or solar electricity in particular. RPS are a set of policies designed to increase the use of renewable energy sources for electricity generation. In general, RPS set a minimum requirement for the share of electricity supply that comes from designated renewable energy resources by a certain date or year. According to information provided by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, as of November 2022, 36 states and the District of Columbia had established an RPS or renewable energy goal. In 12 of those states and the District of Columbia, the requirement is for 100% clean energy by 2050 or earlier. A common feature of RPS policies is a renewable electricity credit trading system that reduces the cost to comply with the RPS.

The cost of solar power may exceed retail electricity rates. Electric utility companies or generators of electricity from other non-solar renewable sources of electricity may successfully lobby for changes in the relevant legislation in their markets that are harmful to the solar industry. Furthermore, electric utility companies may establish pricing structures or interconnection requirements that could adversely affect our sales and be harmful to the solar generation industry.

The concentration of our sales in a limited number of specific markets increases risks associated with the reduction, elimination or expiration of governmental subsidies and economic incentives for solar energy products.

The majority of our revenue during the periods covered by this Annual Report resulted from sales by our subsidiary in the United States. For example, for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, 94%, 80% and nearly 100%, respectively, of total third-party revenue resulted from sales by our U.S. subsidiary. We expect to continue to generate a substantial amount of our revenue from our U.S. subsidiary in the future.

There are a number of important incentives, including those provided in the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, as described above, that have a certain time limit and are expected to phase down or terminate in the future, which could adversely affect sales of our products in the United States. Additionally, as we further expand to other countries, changes in incentive programs or electricity policies could negatively affect returns on our investments in those countries as well as our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Existing electric utility industry policies and regulations, and any subsequent changes, may present technical, regulatory and economic barriers to the purchase and use of solar energy systems that may significantly reduce demand for our products and services or harm our ability to compete.

Federal, state, local and foreign government regulations and policies concerning the broader electric utility industry, as well as internal policies and regulations promulgated by electric utilities and organized electric markets with respect to fees, practices and rate design, heavily influence the market for electricity generation products and services. These regulations and policies often affect electricity pricing and the interconnection of generation facilities, and can be subject to frequent modifications by governments, regulatory bodies, utilities and market operators. For example, changes in fee structures, electricity pricing structures and system permitting, interconnection and operating requirements can deter purchases of renewable energy products, including solar energy systems, by reducing anticipated revenue or increasing costs or regulatory burdens for would-be system purchasers. The resulting reductions in demand for solar energy systems could harm our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

A significant development in renewable energy pricing policies in the United States occurred on July 16, 2020, when the FERC issued a final rule amending regulations that implement the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (“PURPA”). The net effect of these changes is uncertain, however, in general, FERC’s PURPA reforms have the potential to reduce prices for the output from certain new renewable generation projects while also narrowing the scope of PURPA eligibility for new projects. These effects could reduce demand for PURPA-eligible solar energy systems and could harm our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, changes in our products or changes in export and import laws and implementing regulations may create delays in the introduction of new products in international markets, prevent our customers from deploying our products internationally or, in some cases, prevent the export or import of our products to certain countries altogether. Any such event could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Actions addressing determinations of forced labor practices in China and legislation and policies adopted to address such practices may disrupt the global supply of solar panels and affect our business.

Since 2016, CBP has issued a number of WROs directed at forced labor in China, including WROs directed specifically at activity in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. As a result of these orders, certain products, including solar panels manufactured with polysilicon from Xinjiang, are effectively barred from entering the United States. Despite our due diligence efforts, as well as contractual provisions we put in place that forbid our suppliers from using forced labor or components that were produced using forced labor, we cannot determine with certainty whether our suppliers may violate our contracts or become subject to a WRO, which could subject us to legal, reputational, and other risks. If this were to occur, we might have to find alternative suppliers on short notice, resulting

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in construction delays and disruption and higher costs. Additionally, WROs have and could continue to impact the importation of solar panels. While we are not directly involved in the importation of solar panels, such WROs can negatively impact the global solar market and the timing and viability of solar projects to which we sell our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The UFLPA was passed by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Biden on December 23, 2021. The UFLPA establishes a rebuttable presumption that the importation of any goods, wares, articles, and merchandise mined, produced, or manufactured wholly or in part in Xinjiang, or that are produced by certain entities, is prohibited by Section 307 of the Tariff Act of 1930 and that such goods, wares, articles, and merchandise are not entitled to entry to the United States. CBP began implementing the presumption set out in the UFLPA on June 21, 2022, resulting in new rules for solar module importers and reviews by CBP. There continues to be uncertainty in the market around achieving full compliance with the UFLPA for the importation of solar modules, whether related to sufficient traceability of materials or other factors. While we do not import solar modules directly, solar modules are necessary in order for our customers’ projects to progress forward, and therefore any disruption in the global supply of solar modules may have a material adverse effect on our business.

Changes in the U.S. trade environment, including the imposition of import tariffs, could adversely affect the amount or timing of our revenue, results of operations or cash flows.

Trade policies and international disputes at times result in increased tariffs, trade barriers and other restrictive measures. In particular, China and the United States have imposed significant tariffs on imports of goods from each other's respective countries in recent years. These developments and any further tariff increases could potentially impact our suppliers’ hardware component prices and impact any plans to provide services in China and other international markets. These developments could have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets.

China is a major producer of solar cells and other solar products. Certain solar cells, modules, laminates and panels from China are subject to tariffs imposed by the United States. Tariffs on solar cells, modules and inverters from China may put upwards pressure on prices of energy products in other countries.

On April 1, 2022, the U.S. Department of Commerce, in response to a petition by Auxin, published a notice initiating the Solar Circumvention Investigation. On June 6, 2022, President Biden issued a proclamation allowing U.S. solar deployers the ability to import solar modules and cells from Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam free from certain duties for 24 months, along with other incentives designed to accelerate U.S. domestic production of clean energy technologies. However, on December 29, 2023, Auxin and Concept Clean Energy, Inc. filed suit in the U.S. Court of International Trade challenging the legal basis for the moratorium and implementing regulations. If the suit proves successful, solar module importers could owe retroactive duties on goods that have already cleared customs. In addition, there is a near term future uncertainty related to the supply of solar modules from the foregoing countries as the moratorium described above is set to expire on June 6, 2024.

Furthermore, the United States continues to impose tariffs on goods imported from China under Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 (the “Section 301 Tariffs”). Although these tariffs were reduced in connection with the “Phase One” Agreement between the United States and China, which was signed in January 2020, the United States continues to impose tariffs ranging from 7.5% to 25% on more than $300 billion in Chinese imports. These tariffs apply to a range of products, including solar products such as modules, inverters, and non-lithium-ion batteries. Since these tariffs impact the purchase price of solar products, they raise the cost associated with purchasing these solar products from China and reduce the competitive pressure on providers of solar products not subject to these tariffs.

In 2018, the President of the United States announced the imposition of tariffs on certain imported solar cells and modules under Section 201 of the Trade Act of 1974 (the “Section 201 Tariffs”). These tariffs apply on a global basis, to cells and modules from a variety of jurisdictions. The amount of these tariffs has declined over time, and is currently 14.25% ad valorem. On February 4, 2022, President Biden announced the extension of these tariffs through 2026, but exempted bifacial solar modules from the tariffs and doubled the annual amount of cells that can be imported before tariffs apply from 2.5 GW to 5 GW.

Finally, in March 2018, the United States imposed a 25% tariff on steel imports and a 10% tariff on aluminum imports pursuant to Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962. While these tariffs are no longer in place with respect to imports from many countries, any additional tariff actions affecting steel and aluminum could result in interruptions in the supply chain and impact costs and our gross margins.

As described further in Part I, Item 3, "Legal Proceedings" below, in March 2023, we received notices from CBP of assessments for tariffs under Sections 301 and 232 and for antidumping and countervailing duties with respect to merchandise we had imported from Thailand in 2022. We are currently disputing the applicability of these assessments and have filed a formal protest with regard to one assessment and plan to do the same with a revised

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assessment received from CBP. Since the outcome of these matters cannot be predicted with certainty, the costs associated with these assessments could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations, financial position, or liquidity.

Tariffs currently in place and the possibility of additional tariffs in the future have created uncertainty in the industry. If the price of solar systems in the United States increases further, the use of solar systems could become less economically feasible and could further reduce our gross margin or reduce demand for solar systems manufactured and sold, which in turn may decrease demand for our products. Additionally, existing or future tariffs may negatively affect our customers and manufacturing partners. For example, the proclamation issued by President Biden on June 6, 2022 allowing U.S. solar deployers the ability to import solar modules and cells from Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam free from certain duties will expire on June 6, 2024. Such outcomes could adversely affect the amount or timing of our revenue, results of operations or cash flows, and continuing uncertainty could cause sales volatility, price fluctuations or supply shortages or cause our customers to advance or delay their purchase of our products. Governments may take further trade-related actions, which may include additional or increased tariffs and trade restrictions, and we may be unable to quickly and effectively react to such actions. While we have taken actions with the intention of mitigating the effect of tariffs on our business by reducing our reliance on China, we may not succeed or be able to continue to do so on attractive terms or at all. For example, in 2019, 90% of our supply chain was sourced from China. However, as of December 31, 2023, we have qualified suppliers outside of China for certain of our commodities and we continue to work to reduce the extent to which our supply chain for U.S.-based projects is subject to existing tariffs. We have entered into partnerships with manufacturers based in the United States, Hong Kong, India, Mexico, Canada, Spain, Brazil, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, Vietnam and Korea to diversify our supply chain and optimize costs. However, despite these partnerships, we may still be required to use suppliers in China and other jurisdictions that will subject us to existing tariffs.

Changes in tax laws or regulations that are applied adversely to us, or our customers, could materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Changes in corporate tax rates, tax incentives for renewable energy projects, the realization of net deferred tax assets relating to our U.S. operations, the taxation of foreign earnings and the deductibility of expenses under future tax reform legislation could have a material impact on the value of our deferred tax assets, could result in significant one-time charges in the current or future taxable years, and could increase our future U.S. tax expense, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

We could be adversely affected by any violations of the FCPA and other foreign anti-bribery laws, as well as of export controls and economic sanctions laws.

The FCPA generally prohibits companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to foreign government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Other countries in which we operate also have anti-bribery laws, some of which prohibit improper payments to government and non-government persons and entities. We have adopted policies that mandate compliance with these anti-bribery laws. However, we currently operate in and intend to further expand into, many parts of the world that have experienced governmental corruption to some degree and, in certain circumstances, strict compliance with anti-bribery laws may conflict with local customs and practices. In addition, due to the level of regulation in our industry, our entry into certain jurisdictions requires substantial government contact where norms can differ from U.S. standards. It is possible that our employees, subcontractors, agents and partners may take actions in violation of our policies and anti-bribery laws. Furthermore, we are subject to rules and regulations of the United States and other countries relating to export controls and economic sanctions, including, but not limited to, trade sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control within the U.S. Department of the Treasury, as well as the Export Administration Regulations administered by the Department of Commerce. These regulations may limit our ability to market, sell, distribute or otherwise transfer our products or technology to prohibited countries or persons. Any violation of such laws, even if prohibited by our policies, could subject us to criminal or civil penalties or other sanctions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and reputation.

Risks Related to Manufacturing and Supply Chain

We depend upon a limited number of outside contract manufacturers, and our operations could be disrupted if our relationships with these contract manufacturers are compromised.

We do not have internal manufacturing capabilities, and currently rely on contract manufacturers to build all of our products (including through our investment in Alpha Steel). Based on the U.S. dollar amount of purchase orders we issued during the year ended December 31, 2023, 42%, 23%, 19% and 12% of our spending involved contract manufacturers located in the United States, Hong Kong, China and India, respectively.

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Our reliance on a limited number of contract manufacturers in a limited number of countries makes us vulnerable to possible capacity constraints and reduced control over component availability, quality, delivery schedules, manufacturing yields and costs. At December 31, 2023, we did not have long-term supply contracts with any of our contract manufacturers, although we did enter into a three-year supply agreement with Alpha Steel in February 2023 that will require certain annual minimum purchase thresholds during the term of the supply agreement, beginning in January 2024. Our other contract manufacturers are not obligated to supply products to us for any period, in any specified quantity or at any certain price beyond the single delivery contemplated by the relevant purchase order. While we may enter into long-term master supply agreements with our contract manufacturers in the future if the volume of our business grows in a way that makes such additional arrangements economically feasible, we may not be successful in negotiating such agreements on favorable terms or at all. With respect to any such long-term master supply agreements, we could be subject to terms that may be harmful to our business, including in the event that we do not have the customer demand necessary to utilize the products that we are required to purchase or have made deposits for, or in the event that we are required to purchase products at a price in excess of the prevailing market rate. Any change in our relationships with our contract manufacturers or changes to contractual terms of our agreements with them could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

The revenue that certain of our contract manufacturers generate from our orders represents a relatively small percentage of their overall revenue. As a result, fulfilling our orders may not be considered a priority in the event of constrained ability to fulfill all of their customer obligations in a timely manner. Our use of international facilities may increase supply risk, including the risk of supply interruptions or reductions in manufacturing quality or controls.

We may be negatively impacted by the deterioration in financial conditions of our limited number of contract manufacturers. If any of our contract manufacturers were unable or unwilling to manufacture the components that we require for our products in sufficient volumes, at high-quality levels, on a timely basis and pursuant to existing supply agreement or purchase order terms, due to financial conditions or otherwise, we would have to identify, qualify and select acceptable alternative contract manufacturers. An alternative contract manufacturer may not be available to us when needed or may not be in a position to satisfy our quality or production requirements on commercially reasonable terms, including price and timing. Any significant interruption or delays in manufacturing would require us to reduce or delay our supply of products to our customers or increase our shipping costs to make up for delays in manufacturing, if possible, which in turn could reduce our revenue, cause us to incur delay liquidated damages or other liabilities to our customers, harm our relationships with our customers, damage our reputation or cause us to forego potential revenue opportunities. While we may have contractual remedies against our contract manufacturers for the supply chain malfunctions noted above to support any liabilities to our customers, such remedies may not be sufficient in scope, we may not be able to effectively enforce such remedies and we may incur significant costs in enforcing such remedies.

We may experience delays, disruptions or quality control problems in our contract manufacturers’ manufacturing operations, which could result in reputational damage and other liabilities to our customers.

Our product development, manufacturing and testing processes are complex and require significant technological and production-related expertise. Such processes involve a number of precise steps from design to production. Any change in our processes could cause one or more production errors, requiring a temporary suspension or delay in a manufacturer's production line until the errors can be researched, identified, analyzed and properly addressed and rectified. This may occur particularly as we introduce new products, modify our engineering and production techniques and/or expand our capacity. In addition, delays, disruptions or our failure to maintain appropriate quality assurance processes could result in increased product failures, loss of customers, increased warranty claims, delay liquidated damages claims or other liabilities to our customers, increased production and logistics costs and delays. While we may have contractual remedies against our contract manufacturers for such quality assurance failures to support any liabilities to our customers, such remedies may not be sufficient in scope, we may not be able to effectively enforce such remedies and we may incur significant costs in enforcing such remedies. Any of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We depend on a limited number of contract manufacturers for key components of our products to adequately meet anticipated demand. Due to the limited number of such contract manufacturers, any cessation of operations or production or any shortage, delay, price change, imposition of tariffs or duties or other limitation on our ability to obtain the components we use could result in sales delays, cancellations and loss of market share.

We depend on a limited number of contract manufacturers for certain key components used to manufacture our products, making us susceptible to quality issues, shortages and price changes. Some of our contract manufacturers have in the past stopped producing or limited their production of our components, faced supply constraints or increased prices on the raw materials for their component, ceased operations or been acquired by, or entered into exclusive arrangements with, one or more of our competitors, and such actions may occur again in the future. Additionally, these

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manufacturers could stop selling to us at commercially reasonable prices, or at all. Because there are a limited number of contract manufacturers of the key components used to manufacture our products, it may be difficult to quickly identify alternate manufacturers or to qualify alternative components on commercially reasonable terms, and our ability to satisfy customer demand may be adversely affected. Transitioning to or redesigning a product to accommodate a new contract manufacturer would result in additional costs and delays. These outcomes could harm our business or financial performance.

Any interruption in the supply of limited source components for our products would adversely affect our ability to meet scheduled product deliveries to our customers, could result in lost revenue or higher expenses and would harm our business.

The interruption of the flow of components from international contract manufacturers could disrupt our supply chain, including as a result of the imposition of additional laws, duties, tariffs and other charges on imports and exports.

We purchase some of our components outside of the United States through arrangements with various international contract manufacturers. Political, social or economic instability in these regions, or in other regions where our products are made, could cause disruptions in trade, including, without limitation, exports to the United States. As detailed previously, trade disputes between various countries, particularly China and the United States, have created uncertainty with respect to the ability to import certain technologies and products into the United States, as well as in respect of tariff impacts on the costs of some of our components. In addition, recent WROs related to polysilicon requires panel importers to demonstrate that polysilicon used in their panels has not been sourced using forced labor. To date, CBP has used the WROs to detain solar panels, which has disrupted the U.S. solar installation market and caused additional uncertainty on future projects. These WRO actions, as well as other governmental actions that have or may impact the importation of solar panels (including the UFLPA), have and could continue to negatively impact the global solar market and the timing and viability of solar projects to which we sell our products, which has negatively impacted our 2022 and 2023 revenue and cash flows and may continue to negatively impact our anticipated revenue and cash flows in 2024, and which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. While our products do not contain polysilicon, the degree of our exposure is dependent on, among other things, the impact of these measures on the projects that are also intended to use our products, with such impact being largely out of our control. Other events that could also cause disruptions to our supply chain include, but are not limited to:

additional trade enforcement actions that lead to imposition of additional tariffs and other charges on imports and exports that could relate to imports from a number of different countries;
the potential imposition of restrictions on our acquisition, importation or installation of equipment under future U.S. regulations implementing the Executive Order on Securing the United States Bulk-Power System;
quotas imposed by bilateral trade agreements;
foreign currency fluctuations;
public health issues and epidemic diseases, their effects (including any disruptions they may cause) or the perception of their effects;
extreme weather events that may affect manufacturing output or the transportation of materials and equipment to other countries or regions of the world;
wars, military operations or other hostilities, including Russia's invasion of Ukraine and conflicts in the Middle East; and
significant labor disputes, such as transportation worker strikes.

Failure by our contract manufacturers to use ethical business practices and comply with applicable laws and regulations may adversely affect our business.

While our contract manufacturers are required to adhere to certain business practices to remain on our approved vendor list, which we monitor on a continuous basis, we do not control our contract manufacturers’ operations or their business practices. Additionally, our contract manufacturers may not follow ethical business practices, such as fair wage practices or comply with environmental, safety, labor, sanctions and anti-corruption laws and other local laws or other regulations of which we may not be aware. For example, as we continue to expand our business into foreign jurisdictions, the manufacture of our products may be subject to local content requirements, which require our products to incorporate materials from certain local providers. A lack of demonstrated compliance could damage our reputation and lead us to seek alternative manufacturers, which could increase our costs and result in delayed delivery of our

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products, product shortages or other disruptions of our operations. Violation of labor or other laws by our contract manufacturers or the divergence of a contract manufacturer’s labor or other practices from those generally accepted as ethical in the United States or other markets in which we do business could also attract negative publicity for us and harm our business.

We may not have sufficient insurance coverage to cover business continuity.

We rely on a limited number of contract manufacturers and, as a result, a sustained or repeated interruption in the manufacturing of our products by such outsourced manufacturers due to fire, flood, war, pandemic or natural disasters, and/or an interruption in the provision of the required components for our business by these manufacturers may interfere with our ability to sell our products to our customers in a timely manner. The nature of our business and our size makes it difficult to insure some or all of the possible harms that could result if we fail to sell and deliver our products in a timely manner, which may adversely affect our financial results.

We and our contract manufacturers are dependent on domestic and international transportation and logistics markets to deliver our products. If we or our contract manufacturers experience disruptions, unavailability or escalated pricing in the transportation and logistics markets, which include trucking, vessels, ports and related infrastructure and logistics, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely impacted.

We and our contract manufacturers rely on domestic and international transportation and logistics markets to deliver our products to customers. Our ability and the ability of our contract manufacturers to deliver our products could be adversely impacted by shortages in available cargo capacity, changes by carriers and transportation companies in policies and practices, such as scheduling, pricing, payment terms and frequency of service or increases in the cost of fuel, taxes and labor, and other factors, such as extreme weather events or labor strikes and work stoppages, not within their control. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in diminished cargo capacity and port detainment of vessels which caused delays in delivery of our products to project sites during 2020 and into 2022. In addition, we have seen delays, disruptions and price increases in international transportation and logistics markets due to closures or capacity restrictions applicable to both the Panama Canal and Suez Canal (including the diversion of shipping vessels from the Red Sea as a result of attacks on shipping vessels there). Material interruptions in service or stoppages in transportation and logistics markets, whether caused by strike, work stoppage, lock-out, slowdown or otherwise, and escalated pricing in transportation and logistics markets could materially and adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Risks Related to Intellectual Property

If we fail, in whole or in part, to obtain, maintain, protect, defend or enforce our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, our business and results of operations could be materially harmed.

Our success partly depends on our ability to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights. We rely on a combination of patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets to establish and protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, as well as unfair competition laws, confidentiality and license agreements and other contractual arrangements. As of December 31, 2023, we had patents in the following locations:

Locations

 

Patents Granted

 

 

Patents Allowed and Pending for Examination

 

United States

 

 

50

 

 

 

2

 

Australia

 

 

4

 

 

 

1

 

All other

 

 

7

 

 

 

1

 

Total

 

 

61

 

 

 

4

 

Our issued U.S. patents are expected to expire between 2024 and 2043.

Our trademarks and trade names include, but are not limited to, Voyager Tracker, Pioneer Tracker, SunDAT, SunPath, SunOPS, Atlas and FTC Solar, which are protected under applicable intellectual property laws. Our pending patent and trademark applications or other applications for intellectual property registrations may not be approved, issued or granted, and our existing and future intellectual property rights may not be valid, enforceable or sufficiently broad to prevent competitors from using technology similar to or the same as our proprietary technology, to prevent our contract manufacturers from providing similar technology to our competitors or to sufficiently allow us to develop and maintain recognized brands. Additionally, our intellectual property rights may afford only limited protection of our intellectual property and may not (i) prevent our competitors or contract manufacturers from duplicating our processes or technology, (ii) prevent our competitors from gaining access to our proprietary information and

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technology or (iii) permit us to gain or maintain a competitive advantage. Any impairment or other failure to obtain sufficient intellectual property protection could impede our ability to market our products and services, negatively affect our competitive position and harm our business and operating results, including forcing us to, among other things, rebrand or re-design our affected products and services. In countries where we have not applied for patent protection or trademark or other intellectual property registration or where effective patent, trademark, trade secret and other intellectual property laws and judicial systems may not be available to the same extent as in the United States, we may be at greater risk that our proprietary rights will be circumvented, misappropriated, infringed or otherwise violated.

To protect our unregistered intellectual property, including our trade secrets and know-how, we rely in part on trade secret laws and confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and independent contractors. We also require third parties, such as our customers and contract manufacturers, which may have access to our proprietary technologies and information to enter into non-disclosure agreements or other contracts containing obligations to maintain the confidentiality of our intellectual property. Such measures, however, provide only limited protection, and our confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements and other agreements containing confidentiality provisions may not prevent unauthorized disclosure or use of our confidential information, especially after our employees or third parties end their employment or engagement with us, and may not provide us with an adequate remedy in the event of such disclosure. Furthermore, competitors or other third parties may independently discover our trade secrets, copy or reverse engineer our products or services or portions thereof, or develop similar technology. If we fail to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, or if such intellectual property and proprietary rights are infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated, our business, results of operations or financial condition could be materially harmed.

We may need to defend ourselves against third-party claims that we are infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating third-party intellectual property rights, which could divert management’s attention, cause us to incur significant costs and prevent us from selling or using the products, services or technologies to which such rights relate.

Our competitors and other third parties hold numerous patents related to technologies used in our industry, and may hold or obtain patents, copyrights, trademarks or other intellectual property rights that could prevent, limit or interfere with our ability to make, use, develop, sell or market our products and services, which could make it more difficult for us to operate our business. From time to time, we may be subject to claims of infringement, misappropriation or other violation of patents or other intellectual property rights or licensing fee and royalty claims and related litigation, and, if we gain greater recognition in the market, we face a higher risk of being the subject of these types of claims. For example, in early 2021 we learned that a claim had been filed against us seeking damages for alleged breach of contract and other claims related to a patent license agreement and consulting relationship, and the same plaintiff subsequently filed a separate lawsuit against us alleging a claim for patent infringement in respect of the same underlying technology. We reached a settlement agreement with the plaintiff in December 2022 in which we agreed to (i) pay an aggregate of $1.5 million in certain installments, and (ii) issue the plaintiff 797,396 shares of our common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, in January 2023 valued at $2.0 million. We also agreed to an arrangement whereby we were granted a worldwide license under certain of the plaintiff's patents for an initial term of three years, subject to annual renewals at our option.

Regardless of the merit of any claims that may be made against us, responding to such claims can be time consuming, can divert management’s attention and resources, and may cause us to incur significant expenses in litigation or settlement. While we believe that our products and services do not infringe in any material respect upon any valid intellectual property rights of third parties, we may not be successful in defending against any such claims. If we do not successfully defend or settle an intellectual property claim, we could be liable for significant monetary damages and could be prohibited from continuing to use certain technology, business methods, content or brands, could be prohibited from continuing to sell certain products or services, or could be required to license such intellectual property from the applicable third party, which could require us to pay significant royalties, increasing our operating expenses. Even if we do reach a settlement agreement to resolve an intellectual property claim, such settlement agreement could also result in our making a significant monetary payment or paying significant royalties. If a license is not available at all or not available on reasonable terms, we may be required to develop or license a non-infringing alternative, either of which could require significant effort and expense. If we cannot license or develop a non-infringing alternative, we would be forced to limit or stop sales of our offerings and may be unable to effectively compete. Any of these results would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We use “open-source” software, and any failure to comply with the terms of one or more open-source licenses could negatively affect our business.

Our products and services use certain software licensed by its authors or other third parties under so-called “open-source” licenses. Some of these open-source licenses may contain requirements that we make available source

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code for modifications or derivative works that we create based upon the open-source software, and that we license such modifications or derivative works under the terms of a particular open-source license or other license granting third parties rights with respect to such software. In certain circumstances, if we combine our proprietary software with certain open-source software, we could be required to release the source code for such proprietary software. Additionally, to the extent that we do not comply with the terms of the open-source licenses to which we are subject, or such terms are interpreted by a court in a manner different than our own interpretation of such terms, then we may be required to disclose certain of our proprietary software or take other actions that could negatively impact our business. Further, the use of open-source software can lead to vulnerabilities that may make our software susceptible to attack, and open-source licenses generally do not provide warranties or controls on the origin of the software. While we attempt to utilize open-source software in a manner that helps alleviate these risks, our attempts may not be successful.

Risks Related to Information Technology and Data Privacy

A significant cybersecurity incident or other disruption to our technology infrastructure could disrupt our business operations and cause financial and reputational damage.

We rely extensively on various information technology systems, including data centers, hardware, software and applications to manage many aspects of our business, including to operate and provide our products and services, to process and record transactions, to enable effective communication systems, to pay our employees, to track inventory flow, to manage logistics and to generate performance and financial reports. Some of our most critical systems are provided and hosted by third-party software vendors in arrangements commonly known as software as a service. We are dependent on the integrity, security and consistent operations of these systems and related back-up systems. Our computer and information technology systems and the third-party systems upon which we rely are also subject to unauthorized access, damage, interruption or shutdown from a number of causes, including computer viruses, ransomware, malware, phishing or distributed denial-of-service attacks, security breaches or cyber-attacks, which could lead to delays in our business operations or subject us to liability and, if significant or extreme, negatively affect our results of operations. In addition, any interruption in the operation of our website or information technology systems could cause us to suffer reputational harm, lose sales, and expose us to litigation or government action, including penalties, fines or judgments.

Unauthorized disclosure of personal or sensitive data or confidential information, whether through a breach of our computer or information technology systems or otherwise, could severely hurt our business.

Some aspects of our business involve the collection, receipt, use, storage, processing and transmission of personal information, including that of our customers’ and end-users of our customers’ solar energy systems, website visitors, employees, contract manufacturers and other third parties. We may collect personal information, including names, addresses, e-mail addresses, credit information, and energy production statistics and consumer preferences, some of which is entrusted to third-party service providers. We increasingly rely on commercially available systems, software, tools (including encryption technology) and monitoring technologies to provide security and oversight for processing, transmission, storage and protection of confidential information and personal data. Despite the security measures we have in place, our facilities and systems, and those of third parties with which we do business, may be vulnerable to security breaches, acts of vandalism and theft (including misappropriation of our financial resources), computer viruses, misplaced or lost data, programming and/or human errors, or other similar events, and an inadvertent or unauthorized use or disclosure could occur or third parties could gain unauthorized access to this type of confidential information and personal data.

Electronic security attacks designed to gain access to personal, sensitive or confidential data by breaching mission critical systems of large organizations are constantly evolving, and high-profile electronic security breaches leading to unauthorized disclosure of confidential information or personal data have occurred recently at a number of major U.S. companies.

Despite our precautions, an electronic security breach in our systems (or in the systems of third parties with which we do business) that results in the unauthorized release of personally identifiable information regarding customers, employees or other individuals or other sensitive data could nonetheless lead to a serious disruption of our operations, financial losses from remedial actions, loss of business or potential liability, including possible punitive damages which may not be covered by or may be in excess of the coverage in our existing insurance policies. As a result of such a breach, we could also be subject to demands, claims and litigation by private parties, and investigations, related actions and penalties by regulatory authorities. Moreover, we could incur significant costs in notifying affected persons and entities and otherwise complying with the multitude of foreign, federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the unauthorized access to, or use or disclosure of, personal information. In addition, any perceived or actual unauthorized access to, or use or disclosure of, such information could harm our reputation,

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substantially impair our ability to attract and retain customers and have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Finally, as the regulatory environment relating to our obligations to protect such sensitive data becomes increasingly rigorous, with continually developing and growing requirements applicable to our business, compliance with those requirements could result in additional costs. A material failure on our part to comply with such requirements could subject us to regulatory sanctions, including fines and potentially lawsuits. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Failure to comply with current or future federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations and industry standards relating to privacy, data protection and consumer protection, or the expansion of current or the enactment of new laws or regulations relating to privacy, data protection and consumer protection, as well as our actual or perceived failure to comply with such laws and regulations could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

There are numerous federal, state, local and foreign laws regarding privacy and the collection, processing, storing, sharing, disclosing, using and protecting of personal information and other data. As an example, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission adopted final rules in July 2023 requiring timely disclosure of material cybersecurity incidents and periodic disclosure of our cybersecurity risk management, strategy and governance processes and policies, which may be found in Part I, Item 1C. "Cybersecurity" below.

We are also subject to specific contractual requirements contained in agreements with third parties governing our use and protection of personal information and other data. We generally comply with industry standards and are subject to the terms of our privacy policy and the privacy- and security-related obligations agreed to with third parties. We strive to comply with applicable laws, policies, legal obligations and industry standards relating to privacy and data protection, to the extent possible. However, it is possible that these obligations may be interpreted and applied in new ways or in a manner that is inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another and may conflict with other rules or our practices. Additionally, new laws or regulations could be enacted with which we are not familiar or with which our practices do not comply.

We expect that new industry standards, laws and regulations will continue to be proposed regarding privacy, data protection and information security in many jurisdictions, including the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), which came into effect on January 1, 2020, and the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”), which amends the CCPA and has many provisions that took effect on January 1, 2023. Certain other states also have passed privacy laws that went into effect during 2023. Additionally, the Federal Trade Commission and many state attorneys general are interpreting federal and state consumer protection laws to impose standards for the online collection, use, dissemination and security of data. The impact of the CCPA, CPRA or other future laws, regulations and standards may have on our business is uncertain. Complying with these evolving obligations is costly. For instance, expanding definitions and interpretations of what constitutes “personal data” (or the equivalent) in the United States or other countries may increase our compliance costs and legal liability.

Any failure, or perceived failure, by us to comply with any federal, state, local or foreign privacy or consumer protection-related laws, regulations or other principles or orders to which we may be subject or other legal obligations relating to privacy or consumer protection could adversely affect our reputation, brand and business, and may result in claims, investigations, proceedings or actions against us by governmental entities or others or other penalties or liabilities or require us to change our operations and/or cease using certain data sets.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

An active, liquid trading market for our common stock may not be sustained.

An active public market for our common stock may not be sustained. If an active and liquid trading market is not sustained, you may have difficulty selling or may not be able to sell any of the shares of our common stock that you purchase.

We are not currently in compliance with the continued listing requirements for The Nasdaq Global Market. If we do not regain compliance and continue to meet the continued listing requirements, our common stock may be delisted from the Nasdaq Global Market, which could affect the market price and liquidity for our common stock and reduce our ability to raise additional capital.

On December 22, 2023, we received notification from The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (“Nasdaq”) that we were not in compliance with the requirement to maintain a minimum closing bid price of $1.00 per share, as set forth in Nasdaq Listing Rule 5450(a)(1), because the closing bid price of the Company’s common stock was below $1.00 per share for 30 consecutive business days. The notification does not impact the listing of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market at this time.

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In accordance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(A), we have a period of 180 calendar days from the date of notification, or until June 19, 2024, to regain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement. During this period, our common stock will continue to trade on the Nasdaq Global Market. If at any time before June 19, 2024 the bid price of our common stock closes at or above $1.00 per share for a minimum of ten consecutive business days, Nasdaq will provide written notification that we have achieved compliance with this minimum bid price requirement.

We are considering all available options to regain compliance with the listing rule. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to regain compliance with the rule or will otherwise be in compliance with other Nasdaq listing criteria. In the event we do not regain compliance by June 19, 2024, we may be eligible for an additional 180 calendar day compliance period to demonstrate compliance with the minimum bid price requirement. To qualify for the additional 180-day period, we may be required to meet the continued listing requirements for market value of publicly held shares and all other initial listing standards (with the exception of the bid price requirement) and transfer our listing to the Nasdaq Capital Market. In addition, we will need to provide written notice to Nasdaq of our intention to cure the deficiency during the second compliance period by effecting a reverse stock split, if necessary. If we do not qualify for the second compliance period or fail to regain compliance during the second 180-day period, then Nasdaq will notify us that our common stock is subject to delisting.

Our stock price has been volatile and may continue to be volatile or may decline regardless of our operating performance, and you may not be able to resell your shares of common stock at or above the price you paid.

Our stock price has fluctuated in the past and may continue to be volatile in the future. From January 03, 2023 to December 28, 2023, the trading price of our common stock fluctuated between a high of $3.870 and a low of $0.282 per share, closing at $0.693 per share on December 28, 2023. The market price of our common stock could continue to be subject to significant fluctuations. The price of our common stock may change in response to fluctuations in our results of operations in future periods and also may change in response to other factors, including factors specific to companies in our industry. As a result, our share price may experience significant volatility and may not necessarily reflect the value of our expected performance. Among other factors that could affect our stock price are:

changes in laws or regulations applicable to our industry or offerings;
speculation about our business in the press or investment community;
price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market;
volatility in the market price and trading volume of companies in our industry or companies that investors consider comparable;
share price and volume fluctuations attributable to inconsistent trading levels of our common stock;
our ability to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights and to avoid infringement, misappropriation or violation of the intellectual property and other proprietary rights of third parties or claims by third parties of such infringement, misappropriation or violation;
sales of our common stock by us or our principal stockholders, officers and directors;
the sustainability of an active trading market for our common stock;
success of competitive products or services;
the public’s response to press releases or other public announcements by us or others, including our filings with the SEC, announcements relating to litigation or significant changes in our key personnel;
the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting;
changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of debt or equity securities, including future issuances under the ATM program;
our entry into new markets;
tax developments in the U.S. or other markets;
strategic actions by us or our competitors, such as acquisitions or restructurings; and
changes in accounting principles.

Further, the stock markets have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies. These fluctuations often have been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. In addition, the stock prices of many renewable energy companies have experienced wide fluctuations that have often been unrelated to the operating

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performance of those companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations, as well as general economic, political and market conditions such as inflation, recessions, interest rate changes or international currency fluctuations, may cause the market price of our common stock to decline. As a result, you may not be able to resell any of your shares of our common stock at or above the price paid. In addition, a decline in our stock price may prevent us from raising capital at favorable terms or at all.

We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future.

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock. We currently intend to retain any future earnings and do not expect to declare or pay any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any future determination to declare cash dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to applicable laws, after taking into account our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. As a result, capital appreciation in the price of our common stock, if any, may be your only source of gain on an investment in our common stock.

The price of our common stock could decline if securities analysts do not publish research or if securities analysts or other third parties publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about us.

Our stock price and trading volume are heavily influenced by the way analysts and investors interpret our financial information and other disclosures. If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, delay publishing reports about our business, or publish negative reports about our business, regardless of accuracy, our common stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock depends, in part, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. Currently, several analysts cover our company. If the number of analysts that cover us declines, demand for our common stock could decrease and our common stock price and trading volume may decline.

Even if our common stock is actively covered by analysts, we do not have any control over the analysts or the measures that analysts or investors may rely upon to forecast our future results. Over-reliance by analysts or investors on any particular metric to forecast our future results may result in forecasts that differ significantly from our own.

Our directors, executive officers and principal stockholders will continue to have significant influence over our company, which could limit your ability to influence the outcome of key transactions, including a change of control.

Our directors, executive officers and each of our 5% stockholders and their affiliates, in the aggregate, beneficially own approximately 34% of the outstanding shares of our common stock, based on the number of shares outstanding as of December 31, 2023. As a result, these stockholders, if acting together, will be able to significantly influence matters requiring approval by our stockholders, including the election of directors and the approval of mergers, acquisitions or other extraordinary transactions. They may also have interests that differ from yours and may vote in a way with which you disagree, and which may be adverse to your interests. This concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change of control of our company, could deprive our stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their common stock as part of a sale of our company and might ultimately affect the market price of our common stock.

Anti-takeover provisions in our governing documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of us more difficult, limit attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management and depress the market price of our common stock.

Our certificate of incorporation, bylaws and Delaware law contain provisions that could have the effect of rendering more difficult, delaying or preventing an acquisition deemed undesirable by our board of directors. Among others, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws include the following provisions:

a staggered board, which means that our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors with staggered three-year terms;
limitations on convening special stockholder meetings, which could make it difficult for our stockholders to adopt desired governance changes;
advance notice procedures, which apply for stockholders to nominate candidates for election as directors or to bring matters before an annual meeting of stockholders;
a prohibition on stockholder action by written consent, which means that our stockholders will only be able to take action at a meeting of stockholders;
a forum selection clause, which means certain litigation against us can only be brought in Delaware;

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no authorization of cumulative voting, which limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect director candidates;
directors will only be able to be removed for cause;
certain amendments to our certificate of incorporation will require the approval of two-thirds of the then outstanding voting power of our capital stock;
the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the then outstanding voting power of our capital stock, voting as a single class, is required for stockholders to amend or adopt any provision of our bylaws; and
the authorization of undesignated or “blank check” preferred stock, the terms of which may be established and shares of which may be issued without further action by our stockholders.

In addition, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law ("DGCL"), which generally prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in a broad range of business combinations with any “interested” stockholder for a period of three years following the date on which the stockholder becomes an “interested” stockholder.

Any provision of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.

Our governing documents also provide that the Delaware Court of Chancery will be the sole and exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders and federal district courts will be the sole and exclusive forum for Securities Act claims, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent to the selection of an alternative forum, the Delaware Court of Chancery is the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or to our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the DGCL, our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws, (iv) any action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws, (v) any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine or (vi) any action asserting an “internal corporate claim” as defined in Section 115 of the DGCL; provided, however, that the exclusive forum provisions will not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act or to any claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. Our certificate of incorporation further provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts are the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a right under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act"), subject to a final adjudication in the State of Delaware of the enforceability of such exclusive forum provision. We note that investors cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. The choice of forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provisions contained in our certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are an “emerging growth company” and have taken advantage of the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies which may make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act. As an emerging growth company, we are not required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, we have reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and we are exempt from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. Additionally, as an emerging growth company, we have elected to delay the adoption of new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until those standards apply to private companies. As such, our consolidated financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with public company effective dates. Investors may find our shares of common stock less attractive because we rely on these provisions. If some investors find our shares of common stock less attractive as a result of the foregoing, there may be a less active trading market for our shares and our share price may be more volatile.

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The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources and distract our management, which could make it difficult to manage our business, particularly after we are no longer an “emerging growth company.”

As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. These requirements may place a strain on our systems and resources. The Exchange Act requires that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and financial condition. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls over financial reporting. Section 404(a) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that management assess and report annually on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and identify any material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting. Our assessment and report by management for the year ended December 31, 2023, may be found in Part II, Item 9A. "Controls and Procedures" of this Annual Report. To maintain and improve the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures, we have committed significant resources, hired additional staff and provided additional management oversight. We have implemented additional procedures and processes for the purpose of addressing the standards and requirements applicable to public companies. Sustaining our growth also will require us to commit additional management, operational and financial resources to identify new professionals to join our firm and to maintain appropriate operational and financial systems to adequately support expansion. These activities may divert management’s attention from other business concerns and will result in increased costs to us, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition or business.

As an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act, we have taken advantage of certain temporary exemptions from various reporting requirements including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements. We have elected to delay the adoption of new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until those standards apply to private companies, as permitted by the JOBS Act.

We had previously identified material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting which were remediated as of December 31, 2022. If we experience additional material weaknesses or otherwise fail to maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting in the future, our ability to timely and accurately report our financial condition and results of operations or comply with applicable laws and regulations could be impaired, which may adversely affect investor confidence in us and, as a result, the market price of our common stock.

As a public company, our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

If we were to fail to maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting or identify additional material weaknesses in the future, failure to remediate those material weaknesses could prohibit us from producing timely and accurate financial statements, which may adversely affect the market price of our common stock and we could become subject to litigation or investigations by the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, the SEC, or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.

Risks Related to Health Epidemics

We face risks related to actual or threatened health epidemics, such as the recent COVID-19 pandemic, and other outbreaks, which could significantly disrupt our operations.

Our business, including our employees, have been and could in the future be adversely impacted by the effects of a widespread outbreak of contagious disease or other health epidemics. As an example, the COVID-19 outbreak was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization from March 2020 until May 2023. During a portion of this time period, we experienced significant supply chain disruptions that caused delays in product deliveries due to diminished vessel capacity, diminished supplier capacity (including local shutdowns and capacity restrictions), port detainment of vessels, port congestion, labor shortages and other stresses on cargo infrastructure (including ports, warehouses, trucking and rail transportation), which contributed to increased shipping costs and increased lead times for delivery of our tracker systems. Transportation costs, including ocean freight and U.S. domestic haul rates, increased at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic but have since returned to pre-pandemic rates. Domestic fuel prices, however, continue to be elevated compared to pre-pandemic rates. Additionally, COVID-19 shutdowns in China during 2022 created a backlog of exports and increased demand for container shipments from China, but such shutdowns have since been eased by the Chinese government. These cost increases and decreases impact our operating

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margins. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted ground operations at project sites due to health-related restrictions and worker absenteeism, which resulted in delays in project completions in 2020 and 2021.

Any future widespread outbreak of contagious diseases, or other adverse public health developments, could cause disruption to, among other things, our contract manufacturers located in the United States and elsewhere around the world, which could cause delays in our supply chain and product shipments and delays in project completion, as well as reductions in customer support trainings and monitoring of our contract manufacturers, which could adversely affect our business, operations and customer relationships.

Many of our contracts with customers include liquidated damages that are payable for shipment delays, and we have in the past incurred and may in the future incur liabilities under such provisions if we face challenges from future health epidemics.

 

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

Item 1C. Cybersecurity.

Risk management and strategy

We recognize the importance of developing, implementing and maintaining robust cybersecurity measures to safeguard our information technology ("IT") systems and protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of our data.

We have integrated cybersecurity risk management into our overall risk management and internal control framework and have established policies and controls that we believe are appropriate in light of the risks of damage to our reputation and financial condition from unauthorized access to our key digital assets and systems.

Many of our key IT systems are provided by third parties with extensive experience and knowledge in addressing cybersecurity risks involving those systems and have their own robust system of controls regarding their software products, which we monitor on a recurring basis through review of independent reports on their systems of internal controls provided to us. Such IT systems include our primary accounting, financial reporting, payroll and employee benefits, document storage, email and video communication and employee expense reporting systems. Our internal intranet and IT asset control systems are also managed on our behalf by a third-party service provider, with whom we participate in regular weekly meetings to discuss cybersecurity-related items such as (i) operating and application system patching, (ii) phishing attempts, (iii) malware, (iv) non-compliant devices, (v) third-party secure scorecard results, and (vi) alerts provided through our Security Operations Center.

We obtain security incident reports from our third-party software and service providers regarding unauthorized attempts to access our systems, when and if they occur, and we work closely with our third-party providers to explore the details of any unauthorized attempts to infiltrate those systems and to assess whether any critical information within those systems was compromised or not. We also evaluate to the extent possible our system of controls in comparison to information obtained from our third-party providers, as well as our independent accountants and other technology consultants, of practices followed by other companies in safeguarding their systems in order to ensure our cybersecurity strategies and processes remain at the forefront of industry best practices.

Many of our employees work remotely or in various locations around the world and are provided with company-owned IT equipment. Software and firmware updates to such equipment are managed and controlled by the Company.

In order to further protect ourselves financially, we maintain insurance coverage of up to $5 million with respect to losses from business interruption, data recovery, cyber-extortion and ransomware, data breach response and crisis management as a result of a cybersecurity incident.

As of the date of the filing of this Annual Report, we have not encountered any cybersecurity incidents that have materially impaired our business strategy, operations or financial standing.

Governance

Board of Directors Oversight

Our Board of Directors is aware of the critical nature of managing risks associated with cybersecurity threats and has established oversight mechanisms to ensure effective governance in managing these risks. The Audit

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Committee is central to the Board's oversight and has been directed to assume primary responsibility for such oversight by the Board. The Audit Committee is comprised of board members with diverse experience including risk management, technology and finance, which, in the judgment of the Board, equips them with the ability to oversee cybersecurity risks effectively. The Audit Committee actively participates in strategic decisions related to cybersecurity, offering guidance to our management and approval of major initiatives.

Management's Role Managing Risk

We have established a Cybersecurity Governance Committee, which meets monthly or more frequently, if needed, to monitor:

our current cybersecurity controls and our ability to address emerging threats;
the status of our ongoing cybersecurity initiatives and strategy;
incident reports from any cybersecurity events; and
compliance with regulatory requirements and industry standards.

 

Our Cybersecurity Governance Committee includes our Chief Financial Officer, Chief Operating Officer, General Counsel, Senior Director of IT, Director of IT, Senior Director of Software, Corporate Controller, Director of SEC Reporting and Technical Accounting, and Director of Internal Audit. We believe the members of our Cybersecurity Governance Committee have relevant knowledge and experience in either IT systems, auditing of controls over IT systems, or management and assessment of risk processes and internal control systems to ensure proper management oversight.

Our IT management is responsible for notifying the Cybersecurity Governance Committee of cyber incidents they become aware of from software alerts, third-party vendors, employees or by other means. The Cybersecurity Governance Committee will review such incidents, including activities by IT management to evaluate the severity of the incidents, and will provide details of any cybersecurity events, including those not deemed to have a material impact, to our Internal Controls and Disclosure Committee for reporting to our Audit Committee. In addition, our Chief Financial Officer, Senior Director of IT and Director of Internal Audit maintain an ongoing dialogue with the Audit Committee during the year regarding emerging or potential cybersecurity risks.

The Cybersecurity Governance Committee has the responsibility for determining if a cybersecurity incident is considered to have a material impact on the Company requiring public reporting in accordance with the rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

Under the guidance of the Cybersecurity Governance Company, we have adopted (i) a Security Incident Response Plan, (ii) a Cybersecurity Materiality Assessment Policy, and (iii) a Cybersecurity Register of Events.

Our IT management, in conjunction with our Director of Internal Audit, has responsibility for monitoring and testing the effectiveness of our cybersecurity controls and procedures on a recurring basis.

Item 2. Properties.

Our corporate headquarters located in Austin, Texas, consists of approximately 9,278 square feet of office space, the lease for which expires on October 31, 2025. We also have a lease expiring in May 2026 for an applications laboratory located in Austin, Texas, consisting of 4,700 square feet.

We entered into a new three-year lease in January 2023 for 7,522 square feet of additional office space in Chennai, India.

We also entered into a five-year lease effective February 2023, for a research facility in Sequin, Texas consisting of 261,360 square feet of space. This new facility replaced the access we had prior to mid-2023 to a development sandbox of 174,240 square feet in Aurora, Colorado through our membership in SolarTAC.

Our lease covering approximately 43,560 square feet of space for our SolarTAC Chennai, India facility expires in May 2024.

In addition, we also lease approximately 5,300 square feet of warehouse space and 1,100 square feet of sales and support office space in Brendale, Australia, and 2,500 and 2,860 square feet of sales and support office space in Hyderabad and Bangalore, India, respectively.

We outsource all manufacturing to contract manufacturing partners and currently do not own or lease any manufacturing facilities.

33


 

We believe that our existing properties are in good condition and are sufficient and suitable for the conduct of our business for the foreseeable future. To the extent our needs change as our business grows, we expect that additional space and facilities will be available.

Additional information regarding our leases may be found in Note 9, "Leases" included in our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report.

We may become involved in various claims, lawsuits, investigations, and other proceedings, arising in the normal course of business.

In March of 2023, CBP issued notices of tariff assessment that indicated an action taken at the Import Specialist (i.e., the port) level with respect to merchandise imported from Thailand under entry number 004-1058562-5 (the “625 Assessment”) and entry number 004-1063793-9 (the “Original 939 Assessment”, and collectively with the 625 Assessment, the “Original CBP Assessments”). The Original CBP Assessments related to certain torque beams that are used in our Voyager+ product that were imported in 2022. In the Original CBP Assessments, CPB asserted that Section 301 China tariffs, Section 232 steel & aluminum tariffs, and antidumping and countervailing duties applied to the merchandise. Based on correspondence received to date from CBP and our calculations based on applicable duty and tariff rates, the 625 Assessment is currently for approximately $2.84 million. In September of 2023, CBP informed us (the "Revised 939 Assessment", and together with the 625 Assessment, the "Revised CBP Assessments") that the amount owed under the Original 939 Assessment was being revised downward to approximately $2.01 million. In particular, CBP accepted our position that the Section 301 tariffs of 25% or 7.5% of the value of the merchandise, depending on tariff classification, as well as the antidumping and countervailing duties, previously assessed under the Original 939 Assessment are not applicable as they are only applicable to articles that originate in China and that, in this case, the finished goods are products of Thailand.

Upon review of the facts involved, and in consultation with outside legal counsel, we believe that the remaining amounts claimed in the Revised CBP Assessments are incorrect. In particular, the Section 301 tariffs of 25% or 7.5% of the value of the merchandise, depending on tariff classification, as well as the antidumping and countervailing duties, are not applicable under the 625 Assessment for the same reason stated above with respect to the Revised 939 Assessment, which has been accepted by CBP. Moreover, with respect to both Revised CBP Assessments, we believe that the goods in question were properly classified as parts of structures at the time of importation and that when properly classified, the beams and other materials are not subject to Section 232 duties applicable to more basic steel products.

CBP has legally finalized both Revised CBP Assessments. We filed a formal protest for the 625 Assessment in September of 2023 and plan to do the same for the Revised 939 Assessment. Based on the above, and under the relevant accounting guidance related to loss contingencies, we have made no accrual for the amounts claimed by CBP as of December 31, 2023, as we do not consider these amounts to be a probable obligation, as such term is defined and interpreted under the relevant accounting guidance, for us at this time. However, because matters of this nature are subject to inherent uncertainties, and unfavorable rulings or developments, including future assessments of additional duties or tariffs owed in respect of other shipments or other materials beyond what is presently included in the Revised CBP Assessments, could occur despite our belief that the tariffs and duties asserted are incorrect, there can be no certainty that the Company may not ultimately incur charges that are not currently recorded as liabilities. Since the outcome of these matters cannot be predicted with certainty, the costs associated with them could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations, financial position, or liquidity.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

N/A.

 

34


 

PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Market information

Our common stock, $0.0001 par value, is currently trading on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “FTCI”.

On December 22, 2023, we received notification from Nasdaq that we were not in compliance with the requirement to maintain a minimum closing bid price of $1.00 per share, as set forth in Nasdaq Listing Rule 5450(a)(1), because the closing bid price of the Company’s common stock was below $1.00 per share for 30 consecutive business days. The notification does not impact the listing of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market at this time.

In accordance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(A), we have a period of 180 calendar days from the date of notification, or until June 19, 2024, to regain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement. During this period, our common stock will continue to trade on the Nasdaq Global Market. If at any time before June 19, 2024 the bid price of our common stock closes at or above $1.00 per share for a minimum of ten consecutive business days, Nasdaq will provide written notification that we have achieved compliance with this minimum bid price requirement.

We are considering all available options to regain compliance with the listing rule. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to regain compliance with the rule or will otherwise be in compliance with other Nasdaq listing criteria. In the event we do not regain compliance by June 19, 2024, we may be eligible for an additional 180 calendar day compliance period to demonstrate compliance with the minimum bid price requirement. To qualify for the additional 180-day period, we may be required to meet the continued listing requirements for market value of publicly held shares and all other initial listing standards (with the exception of the bid price requirement) and transfer our listing to the Nasdaq Capital Market. In addition, we will need to provide written notice to Nasdaq of our intention to cure the deficiency during the second compliance period by effecting a reverse stock split, if necessary. If we do not qualify for the second compliance period or fail to regain compliance during the second 180-day period, then Nasdaq will notify us that our common stock is subject to delisting.

Holders

At February 16, 2024, there were 28 holders of record of our common stock.

Dividends

We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock to date. The payment of any cash dividends in the future is within the discretion of our board of directors and is subject to certain limitations under our Senior Secured Revolving Credit Facility Credit Agreement entered into on April 30, 2021, with various lenders, including Barclays Bank PLC, as amended.

Securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans

Shares of our common stock were issuable under our 2017 Stock Incentive Plan (the "2017 Plan") and our 2021 Stock Incentive Plan (the "2021 Plan"), both of which were adopted by our board of directors and stockholders, as of December 31, 2023 as follows:

 

Plan category

 

Number of securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rights

 

 

Weighted-average exercise price of outstanding options, warrants and rights

 

 

Number of securities remaining available for future issuance under equity compensation plans (excluding securities reflected in column (a))

 

 

 

(a)

 

 

(b)

 

 

(c)

 

Equity compensation plans approved by security holders:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stock options

 

 

2,415,526

 

 

$

1.82

 

 

N/A

 

Restricted stock units and awards

 

 

11,891,136

 

 

 

 

 

N/A

 

Total

 

 

14,306,662

 

 

$

1.82

 

 

 

2,305,179

 

 

35


 

On July 1, 2022, we filed a registration statement on Form S-8 to register 5,000,000 shares of common stock for issuance upon the settlement of RSUs and the exercise of stock options previously granted under the 2017 Plan that remain outstanding. No new awards have been or will be granted under the 2017 Plan following the effectiveness of our 2021 Plan on April 27, 2021.

The number of shares initially reserved for issuance under the 2021 Plan was 12,645,239, which will automatically increase on January 1 of each calendar year prior to the tenth anniversary of the Plan's effective date in an amount equal to the lesser of (i) 4% of the total number of shares of common stock outstanding on the day prior (December 31st), and (ii) a number of shares of common stock determined by the compensation committee of the Company's board of directors. Through December 31, 2023, an additional 7,906,088 shares became available for issuance pursuant to the automatic increase provisions of the 2021 Plan, resulting in a total number of shares authorized for issuance under the 2021 Plan of 20,551,327.

Our board of directors also adopted the 2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan ("2021 ESPP Plan") concurrent with our 2021 Plan in order to provide our employees and our designated subsidiaries with an opportunity to purchase our common stock through accumulated payroll deductions at 85% of the stock's fair market value. As of December 31, 2023, this plan had not yet been implemented internally within the Company and no purchases of common stock have been made pursuant to the 2021 ESPP Plan.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

In the three years preceding the date of this Annual Report, we have sold the following securities without registration under the Securities Act:

Common Stock Issuances

On June 14, 2022, we issued 1,000,000 shares of common stock to certain former stockholders of HX Tracker as partial consideration for our acquisition of this business. These shares were issued in a private placement exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act, in reliance on the exemptions set forth in Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act and Rule 506 under Regulation D.

The shares must be held indefinitely and may not be resold, transferred or otherwise disposed of without either (i) registration under the Securities Act and registration or qualification under applicable U.S. state securities laws or (ii) an exemption from the registration requirements of the Securities Act, and compliance with U.S. state securities laws and the applicable laws of any other jurisdiction, and such appropriate legends were affixed to the shares.

Plan-Related Issuances

In the three years preceding the date of this Annual Report, we granted to our directors, officers and employees 4,620,813 RSUs (on a post-split basis) having estimated grant date values ranging from $3.26 to $13.50 per share (on a post-split basis).

None of the foregoing transactions involved any underwriters, underwriting discounts or commissions, or any public offering. We believe the offers, sales and issuances of the above securities were exempt from registration under the Securities Act (or Regulation D or Regulation S promulgated thereunder) by virtue of Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act because the issuance of securities to the recipients did not involve a public offering, or in reliance on Rule 701 because the transactions were pursuant to a written compensatory plan or contract relating to compensation as provided under such rule. The recipients of the securities in each of these transactions represented their intentions to acquire the securities for investment only and not with a view to or for sale in connection with any distribution thereof, and appropriate legends were placed upon the stock certificates issued in these transactions. All recipients had adequate access, through their relationships with us, to information about us. The sales of these securities were made without any general solicitation or advertising.

Use of proceeds from IPO

Not applicable.

Purchases of equity securities by the issuer and affiliated purchasers

No purchases of equity securities were made during the fourth quarter of 2023.

Stockholder performance graph and cumulative total return

The graph below shows a comparison of cumulative total stockholder return for our common stock in relation to the Russell 2000 Index and the Nasdaq Clean Edge Green Energy Index. This graph covers the period from April

36


 

28, 2021, immediately following the effective date of our IPO, through December 31, 2023. The graph assumes the investment of $100 in our stock and on each index on April 28, 2021 (and the reinvestment of dividends thereafter). The comparisons in the graph below are based on historical data and are not indicative of, or intended to forecast, future performance of our common stock.

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/afcd403544f17b80ae84f70e7a3b136f-img145323447_1.jpg 

 

 

Base Period

 

Periods Ending

 

Company or Index Name/Symbol

4/28/2021

 

6/30/2021

 

12/31/2021

 

6/30/2022

 

12/30/2022

 

6/30/2023

 

12/31/2023

 

FTC Solar, Inc. (FTCI)

$

100.00

 

$

87.51

 

$

49.70

 

$

23.80

 

$

17.62

 

$

21.17

 

$

4.55

 

Russell 2000 Index (RUT)

$

100.00

 

$

100.41

 

$

97.58

 

$

74.22

 

$

76.54

 

$

82.08

 

$

88.09

 

Nasdaq Clean Edge Green Energy Index (CELS)

$

100.00

 

$

102.33

 

$

100.57

 

$

77.23

 

$

69.81

 

$

75.84

 

$

62.42

 

 

Item 6. [Reserved]

Not applicable.

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes and other information included elsewhere in this Annual Report. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to those differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below and those discussed in Part I, Item1A. "Risk Factors" and “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” included elsewhere in this Annual Report. Additionally, our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in any future period.

Overview

FTC Solar, Inc. (the “Company”, “we”, “our”, or “us”) was founded in 2017 and is incorporated in the state of Delaware. In April 2021, we completed an initial public offering ("IPO"), and our common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “FTCI”.

37


 

We are a global provider of solar tracker systems, supported by proprietary software and value-added engineering services. Solar tracker systems move solar panels throughout the day to maintain an optimal orientation relative to the sun, thereby increasing the amount of solar energy produced at a solar installation. Our original tracker system is currently marketed under the Voyager brand name (“Voyager”), which is our 2P single-axis tracker solution. In September 2022, we announced the introduction of Pioneer, our new 1P solar tracker solution. We have also launched a new mounting solution to support the installation and use of U.S.-manufactured thin-film modules by project owners and, in August 2023, we introduced SUNOPS, a cloud-based, tracker-agnostic solar asset monitoring solution allowing asset owners and managers to evaluate the operation and performance of their solar deployments. In addition, we have a team of renewable energy professionals available to assist our U.S. and worldwide clients in site layout, structural design, pile testing and other needs across the solar project development and construction cycle. The Company is headquartered in Austin, Texas, and has international subsidiaries in Australia, China, India and South Africa.

We are an emerging growth company, as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups (JOBS) Act. Under the JOBS Act, we elected to use the allowed extended transition period to delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies.

Key Factors Affecting Our Performance

Government Regulations. Changes in the U.S. trade environment, including the imposition of import tariffs, AD/CVD investigations and the UFLPA, which became effective in June 2022, can have an impact on the timing of developer projects. The UFLPA resulted in new rules for module importers and reviews by CBP. There is currently uncertainty in the market around achieving full compliance with UFLPA, whether related to sufficient traceability of materials or other factors. Escalating trade tensions, particularly between the United States and China, have led to increased tariffs and trade restrictions, including tariffs applicable to certain raw materials and components for our products. We have taken measures with the intention of mitigating the effect of tariffs and the impact of AD/CVD and UFLPA on our business by reducing our reliance on China and enhancing our U.S.-based supply chain, including through our investment in Alpha Steel, as described further in Note 3, "Equity method investment" included in our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report. In 2019, 90% of our supply chain was sourced from China. As of December 31, 2023, we have qualified suppliers outside of China for certain of our commodities and we continue to work to reduce the extent to which our supply chain for U.S.-based projects is subject to existing tariffs. We have entered into partnerships with manufacturers based in the United States, Hong Kong, India, Mexico, Canada, Spain, Brazil, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, Vietnam and Korea to diversify our supply chain and optimize costs. On June 6, 2022, President Biden issued an Executive Order allowing U.S. solar deployers to import solar modules and cells from Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam free from certain duties for 24 months, along with other incentives designed to accelerate U.S. domestic production of clean energy technologies. However, on December 29, 2023, Auxin and Concept Clean Energy, Inc. filed suit in the U.S. Court of International Trade challenging the legal basis for the moratorium and implementing regulations. If the suit proves successful, solar module importers could owe retroactive duties on goods that have already cleared customs.

The most notable incentive program impacting our U.S. business has historically been the ITC for solar energy projects, which allows taxpayers to offset their U.S. federal income tax liability by a certain percentage of their cost basis in solar energy systems placed in service for commercial use. The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, passed by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Biden on August 16, 2022, expanded and extended the tax credits and other tax benefits available to solar energy projects and the solar energy supply chain. ITCs have been extended for such projects through at least 2032 and, depending on the location of a particular project and its ability to satisfy certain labor and domestic content requirements, the ITC percentage can range between 30% and 50%. U.S. manufacturers of specific solar components are now eligible to claim production tax credits as an alternative to the ITC. Implementing regulations for this law are, in certain cases, still being finalized and the impact of these regulations continue to be evaluated by developers of new solar projects and manufacturers of solar components. Our investment in and commitments made to Alpha Steel will allow us to obtain certain benefits as a result of this new production tax credit program. We believe this law will bolster and extend future demand for our products in the United States, however as the implementing regulations for this law are still being finalized, this creates uncertainty about the extent of its impact on our Company and the solar energy industry.

Disruptions in Transportation and Supply Chain. Our costs are affected by the costs of certain components and materials, such as steel, motors and micro-chips, as well as transportation costs. Current market conditions and international conflicts that constrain the supply of materials and disrupt the flow of materials from international vendors impact the cost of our products and services, along with overall rates of inflation in the global economy, which have been higher than pre-COVID 19 pandemic historical rates. Transportation costs, including ocean freight and U.S. domestic haul rates, increased at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic but have since returned to pre-pandemic rates. Domestic fuel prices, however, continue to be elevated compared to pre-pandemic rates. Additionally,

38


 

COVID-19 shutdowns in China during 2022 created a backlog of exports and increased demand for container shipments from China, but such shutdowns have since been eased by the Chinese government. These cost increases and decreases impact our operating margins. We have taken steps to expand and diversify our manufacturing partnerships and have adjusted our modes of transportation to mitigate the impact of headwinds that arise in the global supply chain and logistics markets. As an example, we have modified our ocean freight from previously using charter shipments to now using containerized shipments as costs in the container market began to decrease in 2022. We continue to monitor the logistics markets and will continue to evaluate our use of various modes of transportation when warranted to optimize our transportation costs. Additionally, from February 2022 to September 2023, we utilized a related-party consulting firm to support us in making improvements to our processes and performance in various areas, including design, sourcing, logistics, pricing, software and our distributed generation business. Further information may be found in Note 18 "Related party transactions" included in our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report with regard to the related-party consulting firm. We intend to maintain a sharp focus on our design-to-value initiative to continue to improve margins by reducing manufacturing and material costs of our products.

Megawatts ("MW") Produced and MW Shipped and Average Selling Price ("ASP"). The primary operating metrics we use to evaluate our sales performance and to track market acceptance of our products are the change in quantity of MW produced and MW shipped from period to period. MW are measured for each individual project and are calculated based on the expected output of that project once installed and fully operational. We also utilize metrics related to price and cost of goods sold per watt, including the change in ASP from period to period and cost per watt. ASP is calculated by dividing product and service revenue by total watts produced or shipped and product and service cost per watt is calculated by dividing product or service costs of goods sold by total watts produced or shipped. These metrics enable us to evaluate trends in pricing, manufacturing and logistics costs and profitability. Events such as the COVID-19 pandemic, global inflation rates and international conflicts have in the past impacted and may continue to impact the U.S. economy, global supply chains, and our business. These impacts can cause significant shipping delays and cost increases, as well as offsetting ASP increases, and also raise the price of inputs like steel and logistics, affecting our cost per watt.

Investment in technology and personnel. We invest in both the people and technology behind our products. We intend to continue making significant investments in the technology for our products and expansion of our patent portfolio to attract and retain customers, expand the capabilities and scope of our products, and enhance user experience. As an example, in August 2023, we introduced SUNOPS, a cloud-based, tracker-agnostic solar asset monitoring solution allowing asset owners and managers to evaluate the operation and performance of their solar deployments. We also intend over time to make significant investments to attract and retain employees in key positions, including sales leads, engineers, software developers, quality assurance personnel, supply chain personnel, product management, and operations personnel, to help us drive additional efficiencies across our marketplace and, in the case of sales leads, to continue to enhance and diversify our sales capabilities, including international expansion.

Impact of Climate Change. Climate change has primarily impacted our business operations by increasing demand for solar power generation and, as a result, for use of our products. While climate change has not resulted in any material negative impact to our operations to date, we recognize the risk of disruptions to our supply chain due to extreme weather events. This has led us to expand the diversity of our supplier base and to partner with more local suppliers to reduce shipping and transportation needs. We are also increasingly partnering with larger scale steel producers rather than smaller suppliers to facilitate scaling of our operations while remaining conscious of the environmental impacts of steel manufacturing as the regulatory landscape around these high-emitting industries evolves. An example of this strategy is our investment in Alpha Steel, a U.S.-based manufacturing partnership with Taihua, a leading steel fabricator.

We also attempt to mitigate the climate-related risks from the use of our products by designing our equipment and systems to have a high-slope tolerance and wind mitigation capabilities, while at the same time reducing the required foundation/pile count needed. This allows our trackers to be installed in increasingly hostile environments with minimal disturbance to the surrounding land.

Liquidity. See "Liquidity and Capital Resources" below for a discussion of the impact of the items above on our liquidity position.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

Adjusted EBITDA, adjusted net loss and adjusted earnings per share (“EPS”)

We utilize Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Loss, and Adjusted EPS as supplemental measures of our performance. We define Adjusted EBITDA as net loss plus (i) provision (benefit) for income taxes, (ii) interest expense, net, (iii) depreciation expense, (iv) amortization of intangibles, (v) stock-based compensation, (vi)

39


 

non-routine legal fees, certain severance and other costs (credits), and (vii) the loss from an unconsolidated subsidiary that was sold in 2021. We also deduct the contingent gains from the disposal of our investment in an unconsolidated subsidiary and the gain from extinguishment of our debt from net loss in arriving at Adjusted EBITDA. We define Adjusted Net Loss as net loss plus (i) amortization of debt issue costs and intangibles, (ii) stock-based compensation, (iii) non-routine legal fees, severance and certain other costs (credits), (iv) the loss from an unconsolidated subsidiary that was sold in 2021, and (v) the income tax expense (benefit) of those adjustments, if any. We also deduct the gains or add back the losses from the disposal of our investment in an unconsolidated subsidiary that was sold in 2021 and the gain from extinguishment of our debt from net loss in arriving at Adjusted Net Loss. Adjusted EPS is defined as Adjusted Net Loss on a per share basis using the weighted average diluted shares outstanding.

Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Loss, and Adjusted EPS are intended as supplemental measures of performance that are neither required by, nor presented in accordance with, U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). We present Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Loss and Adjusted EPS, because we believe they assist investors and analysts in comparing our performance across reporting periods on an ongoing basis by excluding items that we do not believe are indicative of our core operating performance. In addition, we use Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Loss and Adjusted EPS to evaluate the effectiveness of our business strategies.

Among other limitations, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Loss, and Adjusted EPS do not reflect (i) our cash expenditures, or future requirements, for capital expenditures or contractual commitments, and (ii) the impact of certain cash charges resulting from matters we consider not to be indicative of our ongoing operations. Further, the adjustments noted in Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect the impact of any income tax expense or benefit. Additionally, other companies in our industry may calculate Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Loss, and Adjusted EPS differently than we do, which limits its usefulness as a comparative measure.

Because of these limitations, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Loss, and Adjusted EPS should not be considered in isolation or as substitutes for performance measures calculated in accordance with GAAP, and you should not rely on any single financial measure to evaluate our business. These non-GAAP financial measures, when presented, are reconciled to the most closely applicable GAAP measure as disclosed below:

40


 

 

 

Year ended December 31,

 

 

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

(in thousands, except shares and per share data)

 

Adjusted EBITDA

 

 

Adjusted Net Loss

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA

 

 

Adjusted Net Loss

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA

 

 

Adjusted Net Loss

 

Net loss per U.S. GAAP

 

$

(50,290

)

 

$

(50,290

)

 

$

(99,613

)

 

$

(99,613

)

 

$

(106,589

)

 

$

(106,589

)

Reconciling items -

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Provision for (benefit from) income taxes

 

 

(338

)

 

 

 

 

 

435

 

 

 

 

 

 

169

 

 

 

 

Interest expense, net

 

 

253

 

 

 

 

 

 

978

 

 

 

 

 

 

814

 

 

 

 

Amortization of debt issue costs in interest expense

 

 

 

 

 

709

 

 

 

 

 

 

703

 

 

 

 

 

 

461

 

Depreciation expense

 

 

833

 

 

 

 

 

 

631

 

 

 

 

 

 

232

 

 

 

 

Amortization of intangibles

 

 

542

 

 

 

542

 

 

 

269

 

 

 

269

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

8,295

 

 

 

8,295

 

 

 

20,303

 

 

 

20,303

 

 

 

61,765

 

 

 

61,765

 

Gain from disposal of investment in unconsolidated subsidiary(a)

 

 

(1,319

)

 

 

(1,319

)

 

 

(1,745

)

 

 

(1,745

)

 

 

(20,829

)

 

 

(20,829

)

Gain on extinguishment of debt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(790

)

 

 

(790

)

Non-routine legal fees(b)

 

 

214

 

 

 

214

 

 

 

8,495

 

 

 

8,495

 

 

 

2,791

 

 

 

2,791

 

Severance(c)

 

 

4,422

 

 

 

4,422

 

 

 

1,478

 

 

 

1,478

 

 

 

1,298

 

 

 

1,298

 

Other costs(d)

 

 

3,241

 

 

 

3,241

 

 

 

2,353

 

 

 

2,353

 

 

 

4,927

 

 

 

4,927

 

Loss from sold unconsolidated subsidiary(a)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

354

 

 

 

354

 

Adjusted Non-GAAP amounts

 

$

(34,147

)

 

$

(34,186

)

 

$

(66,416

)

 

$

(67,757

)

 

$

(55,858

)

 

$

(56,612

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

U.S. GAAP net loss per share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diluted

 

N/A

 

 

$

(0.44

)

 

N/A

 

 

$

(0.98

)

 

N/A

 

 

$

(1.24

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adjusted Non-GAAP net loss per share (Adjusted EPS):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diluted

 

N/A

 

 

$

(0.30

)

 

N/A

 

 

$

(0.67

)

 

N/A

 

 

$

(0.66

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted-average common shares outstanding:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diluted

 

N/A

 

 

 

115,546,150

 

 

N/A

 

 

 

101,408,263

 

 

N/A

 

 

 

86,043,051

 

(a) Our management excludes the gain in each year from periodic collections of contingent contractual amounts arising from the sale in 2021 of our investment in an unconsolidated subsidiary, as well as the gain from the 2021 sale, when evaluating our operating performance, along with the loss from operations of our unconsolidated subsidiary prior to the sale.

(b) Non-routine legal fees represent legal fees and other costs incurred for specific matters that were not ordinary or routine to the operations of the business.

(c) Severance costs were incurred due to restructuring changes involving executive turnover and headcount reduction events.

(d) Other costs in 2023 included the write-off of remaining prepaid costs resulting from termination of our consulting agreement with a related party, as described further in Note 18, "Related party transactions" in our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report. Other costs in 2022 included certain amounts related to our acquisition of HX Tracker, costs attributable to settlement of stock-based compensation awards in 2022 resulting from our IPO, shareholder follow-on registration costs and other items pursuant to our IPO, write-off of deferred costs relating to certain uncompleted transactions and installment payments in both 2022 and 2021 relating to a 2021 CEO transition event. Other costs in 2021 also included consulting fees in connection with operations and finance.

41


 

Key Components of Our Results of Operations

The following discussion describes certain line items in our Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss.

Revenue

Revenue from the sale of our solar tracker systems and customized components of those systems is recognized over time, as work progresses, utilizing an input measure of progress determined by cost incurred to date relative to total expected cost on these projects to correlate with our performance in transferring control over the tracker systems and their components. Revenue from the sale of individual parts is recognized at a point in time as and when control transfers based on the terms of the contract. Revenue from sale of term-based software licenses is recognized upon transfer of control to the customer. Revenue for shipping and handling services is recognized over time based on progress in meeting shipping terms of the arrangements. Revenue for stand-alone engineering consulting and pile testing services is recognized at a point in time upon completion of the services performed. Subscription revenue, which is derived from our subscription-based enterprise licensing model, and support revenue, which is derived from ongoing security updates and maintenance, are generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the contract.

Our customers include project developers, solar asset owners and EPC contractors that design and build solar energy projects. For each individual solar project, we enter into a contract with our customers covering the price, specifications, delivery dates and warranty for the products being purchased, among other things. Our contractual delivery period for our solar tracker systems and related parts can vary depending on size of the project and availability of vessels and other means of delivery. Contracts can range in value from tens of thousands to tens of millions of dollars.

Our revenue is affected by changes in the volume and ASP of our solar tracking systems purchased by our customers and volume of sales of software products and engineering services, among other things. The ASP of our solar tracker systems and volume of sales is driven by the supply of, and demand for, our products, changes in product mix, geographic mix of our customers, strength of competitors’ product offerings, tariff and import restrictions, supply chain issues and availability of government incentives to the end-users of our products. Additionally, our revenue may be impacted by seasonality due to cold weather, which can cause variability in site construction activity.

The vast majority of our revenue in the periods presented in this Annual Report was attributable to sales in the United States and Australia. Our revenue growth is dependent on continued growth in the number of solar tracker projects and engineering services we win in competitive bidding processes and growth in our software sales each year, as well as our ability to increase our market share in each of the geographies in which we currently compete, expand our global footprint to new emerging markets, grow our production capabilities to meet demand and continue to develop and introduce new and innovative products that address the changing technology and performance requirements of our customers, among other things.

Cost of revenue and gross profit (loss)

We subcontract with third-party manufacturers to manufacture and deliver our products directly to our customers. Our product costs are affected by the underlying cost of raw materials procured by these contract manufacturers, including steel and aluminum; component costs, including electric motors and gearboxes; technological innovation in manufacturing processes; and our ability to achieve economies of scale resulting in lower component costs. We do not currently hedge against changes in the price of raw materials, but we continue to explore opportunities to mitigate the risks of foreign currency and commodity fluctuations through the use of hedges and foreign exchange lines of credit. Some of these costs, primarily personnel, are not directly affected by sales volume.

We have made changes to our headcount over the last three years as we initially scaled up our business and, more recently, made adjustments at the end of 2022 and in August 2023 in response to current project activity levels. Our gross profit may vary period-to-period due to changes in our headcount, ASP, product costs, product mix, customer mix, geographical mix, shipping methods, warranty costs and seasonality. Pursuant to the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the "CARES Act"), we received employee retention credits during 2021, which reduced the impact of personnel costs on our operating results during that year.

Operating expenses

Operating expenses consist of research and development expenses, selling and marketing expenses and general and administrative expenses. Personnel-related costs are the most significant component of our operating expenses and include salaries, benefits, bonuses, commissions and stock-based compensation expenses.

42


 

We froze non-essential hiring during the latter part of 2022 and implemented reductions in our workforce at the end of 2022 and in August 2023, in response to regulatory and other issues that were negatively impacting our solar project activity levels. In addition, our operating costs have been impacted by (i) our level of research activities to originate, develop and enhance our products, (ii) our sales and marketing efforts as we expand our development activities in various parts of the world, and (iii) variations in legal and professional fees, compliance costs, insurance, facility costs and other costs associated with strategic changes in response to changing market conditions and other matters.

Results of Operations – 2023 Compared to 2022

 

 

Year ended December 31,

 

 

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

(in thousands, except percentages)

 

Amounts

 

 

Percentage of revenue

 

 

Amounts

 

 

Percentage of revenue

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product

 

$

101,872

 

 

 

80.2

%

 

$

63,760

 

 

 

51.8

%

Service

 

 

25,130

 

 

 

19.8

%

 

 

59,306

 

 

 

48.2

%

Total revenue

 

 

127,002

 

 

 

100.0

%

 

 

123,066

 

 

 

100.0

%

Cost of revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product

 

 

93,314

 

 

 

73.5

%

 

 

84,766

 

 

 

68.9

%

Service

 

 

25,381

 

 

 

20.0

%

 

 

65,528

 

 

 

53.2

%

Total cost of revenue

 

 

118,695

 

 

 

93.5

%

 

 

150,294

 

 

 

122.1

%

Gross profit (loss)

 

 

8,307

 

 

 

6.5

%

 

 

(27,228

)

 

 

(22.1

%)

Operating expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

7,166

 

 

 

5.6

%

 

 

9,949

 

 

 

8.1

%

Selling and marketing

 

 

14,811

 

 

 

11.7

%

 

 

8,659

 

 

 

7.0

%

General and administrative

 

 

37,107

 

 

 

29.2

%

 

 

53,736

 

 

 

43.7

%

Total operating expenses

 

 

59,084

 

 

 

46.5

%

 

 

72,344

 

 

 

58.8

%

Loss from operations

 

 

(50,777

)

 

 

(40.0

%)

 

 

(99,572

)

 

 

(80.9

%)

Interest expense, net

 

 

(253

)

 

 

(0.2

%)

 

 

(978

)

 

 

(0.8

%)

Gain from disposal of investment in unconsolidated subsidiary