TABLE OF CONTENTS

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 4, 2022
Registration No. 333-   
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
FTC SOLAR, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
3674
81-4816270
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
FTC Solar, Inc.
9020 N Capital of Texas Hwy, Suite I-260,
Austin, Texas 78759
(737) 787-7906
(Address, Including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Patrick M. Cook
Chief Financial Officer
FTC Solar, Inc.
9020 N Capital of Texas Hwy, Suite I-260,
Austin, Texas 78759
(737) 787-7906
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies of all communications, including communications sent to agent for service, should be sent to:
Andrea L. Nicolás, Esq.
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP
One Manhattan West
New York, New York 10001
(212) 735-3000
Jacob D. Wolf, Esq.
General Counsel and Secretary
FTC Solar, Inc.
9020 N Capital of Texas Hwy, Suite I-260,
Austin, Texas 78759
(737) 787-7906
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
As soon as practicable after the effective date of this Registration Statement.
If any of the securities being registered on this form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. ☒
If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.
If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.
If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
 
 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. The selling stockholders may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not a solicitation of an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
Subject to Completion, dated February 4, 2022
PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS
   37,277,987 Shares of Common Stock
graphic

FTC Solar, Inc.
  Common Stock
This prospectus relates to the offer and sale from time to time by the selling stockholders identified in this prospectus of up to 37,277,987 shares of our common stock, par value $0.0001 per share. This prospectus also covers any additional securities that may become issuable by reason of stock splits, stock dividends or other similar transactions. We are registering the resale of the shares of common stock as required by the registration rights agreement that we initially entered into with the selling stockholders on April 29, 2021.
This prospectus provides you with a general description of the common stock and the general manner in which the selling stockholders may offer or sell the common stock. More specific terms of the common stock that the selling securityholders may offer or sell may be provided in a prospectus supplement that describes, among other things, the specific amounts and prices of the common stock being offered and the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus.
Our registration of the shares of common stock covered by this prospectus does not mean that the selling stockholders will offer or sell any of the shares. The selling stockholders may offer and sell or otherwise dispose of the shares of common stock described in this prospectus from time to time through public or private transactions at prevailing market prices, at prices related to prevailing market prices or at privately negotiated prices. See “Plan of Distribution” for more information.
We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale by the selling stockholders of the shares of common stock offered hereby.
The selling stockholders will pay all underwriting discounts and selling commissions, if any, in connection with the sale of the shares of common stock. We have agreed to pay certain expenses in connection with this registration statement and to indemnify the selling stockholders and certain related persons against certain liabilities. As of the date of this prospectus, no underwriter or other person has been engaged to facilitate the sale of shares of common stock in this prospectus.
We may amend or supplement this prospectus from time to time by filing amendments or supplements as required. You should read this entire prospectus and any amendments or supplements carefully before you make your investment decision.
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol “FTCI.” On February 3, 2022, the last reported sale price of our common stock as reported on Nasdaq was $3.71 per share.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and will be subject to reduced public company reporting requirements. This prospectus complies with the requirements that apply to an issuer that is an emerging growth company. See “Summary—Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company.”
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 7 to read about factors you should consider before buying shares of our common stock.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Prospectus dated    , 2022

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Neither we nor the selling stockholders have authorized anyone to provide any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectuses. We and the selling stockholders do not take responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the shares of common stock offered by this prospectus, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. The information contained in this prospectus is current only as of its date regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of shares of common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.
For investors outside of the United States: Neither we nor the selling stockholders have done anything that would permit this offering or the possession or distribution of this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus we or the selling stockholders may provide to you in connection with this offering in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside of the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the shares of common stock and the distribution of this prospectus outside of the United States.
i

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
Basis of Presentation
Certain monetary amounts, percentages and other figures included in this prospectus have been subject to rounding adjustments. Accordingly, figures shown as totals in certain tables or charts may not be the arithmetic aggregation of the figures that precede them, and figures expressed as percentages in the text may not total 100% or, as applicable, when aggregated may not be the arithmetic aggregation of the percentages that precede them.
Market, Industry and Other Data
This prospectus includes estimates regarding market and industry data and forecasts, which are based on publicly available information, industry publications and surveys, reports from government agencies and our own estimates based on our management’s knowledge of, and experience in, the industry and markets in which we compete. In presenting this information, we have made certain assumptions that we believe to be reasonable based on such data and other similar sources, and on our knowledge of, and our experience to date in, the markets for our products. Market data is subject to change and may be limited by the availability of raw data, the voluntary nature of the data gathering process and other limitations inherent in any statistical survey of market data. In addition, customer preferences are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the headings “Risk Factors” and “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” Accordingly, you are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such market data. References herein to our being a leader in a market or product category refer to our belief that we have a leading market share position in such specified market based on sales dollars, unless the context otherwise requires.
Trademarks, Service Marks and Trade Names
This prospectus includes our trademarks and trade names, including, but not limited to, Voyager Tracker, SunDAT, SunPath, Atlas and FTC Solar, which are protected under applicable intellectual property laws. This prospectus also may contain trademarks, service marks, trade names and copyrights of other companies, which are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks, service marks, trade names and copyrights referred to in this prospectus are listed without the TM, SM, © and ® symbols, but we will assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensors, if any, to these trademarks, service marks, trade names and copyrights.
ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SUMMARY
This summary highlights information included elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary may not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the “Risk Factors” section immediately following this summary, “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and the consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus, before making an investment decision to purchase shares of our common stock. Unless the context otherwise requires, all references to “FTC Solar,” “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company” and similar designations refer to FTC Solar, Inc, a Delaware corporation, and, where appropriate, its consolidated subsidiaries.
FTC SOLAR, INC.
Overview
We are a global provider of advanced solar tracker systems. Our trackers are supported by proprietary software and value-added engineering services. Our mission is to provide differentiated products, software and services that maximize energy generation and cost savings for our customers. We believe achieving our mission will help facilitate the continued growth and adoption of solar power globally. Trackers significantly increase the amount of solar energy produced at a solar installation by moving solar panels throughout the day to maintain an optimal orientation relative to the sun. The combination of integrated hardware tracking technology and advanced software algorithms in solar tracker systems yields, on average, 25% more energy and delivers a 17% lower levelized cost of energy (“LCOE”) compared to fixed-tilt mounting systems, according to 2020 Bloomberg New Energy Finance (“BNEF”) reports. Our systems offer efficiency gains relative to other tracker systems due to our tracker’s enhanced design, which includes a two-panel in-portrait format and independent rows, and its optimization for use with bifacial panels. Additionally, these efficiency gains can be enhanced by our proprietary software solutions. Our customers include leading project developers, solar asset owners and engineering, procurement and construction (“EPC”) contractors that design and build solar energy projects. Our team of experienced renewable energy professionals is focused on delivering compelling value to customers across the full solar energy project lifecycle, including at the development, construction and operations phases.
Our tracker systems are currently marketed under the Voyager brand name (“Voyager Tracker” or “Voyager”). Voyager is a next-generation two-panel in-portrait single-axis tracker solution that we believe offers industry-leading performance and ease of installation. With our Voyager offering, we are one of the largest providers of two-panel in-portrait trackers in the United States, which we determined based on our estimated U.S. tracker market share of approximately 11% (which was calculated using our megawatts (“MW”) shipped for fiscal year 2020 compared to a total tracker market shipment estimate from a 2020 Wood Mackenzie Power & Renewables (“Wood Mackenzie”) report). We designed Voyager to reduce construction costs by enabling efficient use of land, maximizing site accessibility and reducing materials needed for construction. Additionally, Voyager’s patented panel connection features are designed to optimize speed of installation and reduce assembly labor. Due to these design and installation benefits, we believe Voyager offers industry-leading installation cost per watt compared to competing trackers. Post-installation, owners of solar energy projects benefit from Voyager’s proprietary control system, which employs advanced adaptive tracking algorithms that improve production and site yield. We also offer a software solution, SunPath, which uses proprietary algorithms that take into consideration topography, meteorological conditions and other local site conditions to further optimize tracking and help produce additional energy yield over our Voyager Trackers.
Our company was formed in 2017 by a group of renewable energy industry veterans, including the team with substantial experience deploying the AP90 tracker, a first-generation one-panel in-portrait, linked-row design tracker system. The AP90 tracker was first installed in 2013, and achieved approximately 900 MW of cumulative global installations between 2013 and 2016, prior to our formation. Our management team utilized their design and construction expertise, and their experience installing and operating other competitive tracking solutions, to design and develop a next-generation tracker system, Voyager, which achieved product certification in 2019. As of November 9, 2021, we had $692 million of executed contracts and awarded orders for Voyager, with anticipated shipment dates in 2022 and beyond. We define executed contracts and awarded orders as orders that have been documented and signed through a contract or where we are in the process of documenting a contract but for which a contract has not yet been signed, or that are subject to multi-project transactions. In the case of certain projects, including those that are scheduled for delivery on later dates, we have not locked in binding pricing with customers
1

TABLE OF CONTENTS

and we instead use estimated average selling price to calculate the revenue included in our executed contracts and awarded orders for such projects. Actual revenue for these projects could differ once contracts with binding pricing are executed. These amounts do not represent GAAP revenue, and if and when these orders are fulfilled by us will be subject to our revenue recognition policy as described in the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
As of December 31, 2021, we had one U.S. trademark registration, five U.S. applications for trademark registration, 52 issued U.S. patents, twelve issued non-U.S. patents, six patent applications pending for examination in the United States and nine patent applications pending for examination in other countries related to panel attachments, solar tracking algorithms, related design and assembly methods, and software solutions.
In addition to conducting internal quality control procedures, we have engaged and received testing and inspection certifications from several organizations including Black & Veatch Holding Company (“Black & Veatch”), DNV GL Australia Pty Limited (“DNV GL”), Enertis Solar S.L. (“Enertis”) and Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin Inc. (“RWDI”) to help validate the quality of our operations and product offerings.
Our corporate headquarters is located in Austin, Texas and we have training and technology development sites in Aurora, Colorado and Chennai, India. To assist with our global expansion effort, we have grown our sales and support network abroad, with employees located in Australia, India, the Middle East, China, Europe, Latin America, South Africa, and South-East Asia as of December 31, 2021.
Risks Associated with our Business
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before you participate in this offering, you should carefully consider all of the information contained in this prospectus, including the information set forth under the heading “Risk Factors.” Some of the more significant risks include the following:
our limited operating history and the rapidly changing solar industry make it difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects and we may not achieve profitability in the future;
we have a history of losses that may continue in the future, and we may not achieve profitability;
the market for our products and services is highly competitive and rapidly evolving and we expect to face increased competition;
if potential owners of solar energy systems incorporating our solar tracker systems are unable to secure financing on acceptable terms, we could experience a reduction in the demand for our products;
our dependence on a limited number of customers may impair our ability to operate profitably;
we invest significant time, resources and management attention to identifying and developing project leads that are subject to our sales and marketing focus and if we are unsuccessful in converting such project leads (or awarded orders) into binding purchase orders, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected;
we plan to expand into additional international markets, which will expose us to additional regulatory, economic, political, reputational and competitive risks;
we may acquire other companies or technologies, which could divert our management’s attention, result in dilution to our stockholders, reduce our available cash that could be used for other purposes and otherwise disrupt our operations and harm our results of operations;
defects or quality or performance problems in our products could result in loss of customers, reputational damage and decreased revenue, and we may face warranty, indemnity and product liability claims arising from defective products;
we face risks related to actual or threatened health epidemics, such as the coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic, and other outbreaks, which could significantly disrupt our operations;
if we fail, in whole or in part, to obtain, maintain, protect, defend or enforce our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, our business and results of operations could be materially harmed;
we depend upon a limited number of outside contract manufacturers, and our operations could be disrupted if our relationships with these contract manufacturers are compromised;
2

TABLE OF CONTENTS

we may experience delays, disruptions or quality control problems in our contract manufacturers’ manufacturing operations, which could result in reputational damage and other liabilities to our customers;
failure by our contract manufacturers to use ethical business practices and comply with applicable laws and regulations may adversely affect our business;
we and our contract manufacturers are dependent on domestic and international transportation and logistics markets to deliver our products. If we or our contract manufacturers experience disruptions, unavailability or escalated pricing in the transportation and logistics markets, which include trucking, vessels, ports and related infrastructure and logistics, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely impacted;
the reduction, elimination or expiration of government incentives for, or regulations mandating the use of, as well as corporate commitments to the use of, renewable energy and solar energy specifically could reduce demand for solar energy systems and harm our business;
changes in the U.S. trade environment, including the imposition of import tariffs, could adversely affect the amount or timing of our revenue, results of operations or cash flows;
forced labor practices in China and legislation and policies adopted to address such practices may disrupt the global supply of solar panels and affect our business; and
we could be adversely affected by any violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended (the “FCPA”), and other foreign anti-bribery laws, as well as of export controls and economic sanctions laws.
Corporate Information
We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on January 3, 2017 under the name FTC Solar, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 9020 N Capital of Texas Hwy, Suite I-260, Austin, Texas 78759. Our telephone number is (737) 787-7906. Our website address is https://ftcsolar.com. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider information on our website to be part of this prospectus.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company
We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of certain reduced reporting and other requirements that are otherwise generally applicable to public companies. As a result:
we are permitted to include only two years of audited financial statements and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” disclosure;
we are not required to engage an auditor to report on our internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act;
we are permitted to take advantage of extended transition periods for complying with new or revised accounting standards which allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of some accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies;
we are not required to submit certain executive compensation matters to stockholder advisory votes, such as “say-on-pay,” “say-on-frequency” and “say-on-golden parachutes;” and
we are not required to comply with certain disclosure requirements related to executive compensation, such as the requirement to disclose the correlation between executive compensation and performance and the requirement to present a comparison of our Chief Executive Officer’s compensation to our median employee compensation.
We may take advantage of these reduced reporting and other requirements until December 31, 2026 or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. If certain events occur prior to December 31, 2026, including if we have $1.07 billion or more in annual gross revenue, issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period or are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer,” as defined under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), we will cease to be an emerging growth company prior to December 31, 2026.
3

TABLE OF CONTENTS

We have chosen and may continue to choose to take advantage of some but not all of these reduced requirements. We have elected to adopt the reduced requirements with respect to our consolidated financial statements and the related “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” disclosure. We have also elected to take advantage of the extended transition periods for complying with new or revised accounting standards. As a result, the information that we provide to stockholders may be different than the information you may receive from other public companies in which you hold equity.
For risks related to our status as an emerging growth company, see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock—We are an “emerging growth company” and intend to take advantage of the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies which may make our common stock less attractive to investors.
4

TABLE OF CONTENTS

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
Resignation of Chief Executive Officer/Appointment of New Chief Executive Officer
Effective September 23, 2021, Anthony P. Etnyre and our board of directors agreed that Mr. Etnyre would step down from his position as our President and Chief Executive Officer and resign from our board of directors. Sean Hunkler was appointed by our board of directors as our new President and Chief Executive Officer effective as of September 24, 2021 and as a member of our board of directors.
Resignation of Chief Operations Officer
On January 23, 2022, Deepak Navnith and our Chief Executive Officer agreed that Mr. Navnith would step down from his position as Chief Operations Officer. Mr. Navnith has agreed to remain employed by us for a transition period of 30-45 days in order to facilitate an effective transition. We presently intend to eliminate the position of Chief Operations Officer, with functions previously performed by Mr. Navnith to be transitioned to other parts of our organization, each of which will ultimately report to our Chief Executive Officer.
Initial Public Offering
We completed our initial public offering (“IPO”) on April 30, 2021, in which we sold 19,840,000 shares of common stock at a price of $13.00 per share. We used the net proceeds from the IPO for general corporate purposes, with $54.2 million used to purchase shares of our common stock from certain of our employees, officers, directors and other stockholders. See “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions—Stock Repurchase Agreements.”
5

TABLE OF CONTENTS

THE OFFERING
Issuer
FTC Solar, Inc.
Common stock offered by the selling stockholders
37,277,987 shares
Common stock outstanding*
96,751,102 shares
Use of proceeds
We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale by the selling stockholders of the shares of common stock pursuant to this prospectus.
Dividend policy
We have not declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock since our inception. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings and do not expect to declare or pay any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. See “Dividend Policy.”
Listing
Our common stock is listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “FTCI.”
Risk factors
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” for a discussion of risks you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our common stock.
*
The number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of the date of this prospectus is based on 96,751,102 shares of our common stock outstanding as of February 4, 2022 and excludes:
12,980,886 shares of common stock reserved for future grant or issuance under our 2021 Stock Incentive Plan (the “2021 Plan”) and 1,702,891.31 shares of common stock reserved for future grant or issuance under our 2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “ESPP”), which shares will automatically increase each year, as more fully described in “Executive and Director Compensation;”
5,568,770 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of options outstanding as of February 4, 2022, having a weighted-average exercise price of $3.26 per share (with 2,660,864 of such options being vested as of February 4, 2022); and
11,115,517 shares of common stock issuable upon settlement of restricted stock units (“RSUs”) outstanding as of February 4, 2022, having an estimated grant date fair value of $3.82 per share (with 6,107,784 of such RSUs being vested as of February 4, 2022).
6

TABLE OF CONTENTS

RISK FACTORS
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risk factors, as well as all of the other information contained in this prospectus, including “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus, before deciding to invest in our common stock. The occurrence of any of the following risks could materially and adversely affect our business, strategies, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In such case, the market price of our common stock could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment.
Risks Related to Our Business and Our Industry
Our limited operating history and the rapidly changing solar industry make it difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects and we may not achieve profitability in the future.
We have only been in existence since January 3, 2017 and the first installation of Voyager was in the third quarter of 2019. Our solar tracker systems and other solar energy products and services are used primarily in utility-scale ground-mounted solar energy projects. As a result, our future success depends on continued demand for utility-scale solar energy products and services and the ability of solar equipment manufacturers and suppliers to meet this demand. The solar industry is an evolving industry that has experienced substantial changes in recent years, and consumers and businesses ultimately may not adopt solar energy as an alternative energy source at levels sufficient to grow our business. Some of the factors that may impact the demand for solar energy include:
the cost competitiveness, reliability and performance of solar energy systems compared to conventional and non-solar renewable energy sources and products, including the pricing of component parts (e.g., panels) used in solar energy systems;
the availability, scale and scope of federal, state, local and foreign government subsidies and incentives to support the development and deployment of solar energy products;
prices of traditional carbon-based energy sources and government subsidies for these sources;
the extent to which the electric power industry and broader energy industries are deregulated to permit broader adoption of solar electricity generation;
investment by end-users of solar energy products, which tends to decrease when economic growth slows; and
the emergence, continuance or success of, or increased government support for, other alternative energy generation technologies and products.
We have encountered and will continue to encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing industries, including unpredictable and volatile revenue. If demand for solar energy fails to develop sufficiently or is not sustained, demand for our products and services will suffer, which would have an adverse impact on our ability to increase our revenue and grow our business.
We have a history of losses that may continue in the future, and we may not achieve profitability.
We had net loss of $82.7 million and $15.9 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and the year ended December 31, 2020, respectively. We have incurred substantial net losses from our inception through the nine months ended September 30, 2021, and we may not be able to achieve profitability and may incur additional losses in the future. At September 30, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $125.4 million. Our revenue growth may slow or revenue may decline for a number of reasons, including a decline in demand for our offerings, increased competition, a lack of success in converting sales leads into binding purchase orders, loss of existing customers, our inability to sell software and other complementary products, a decrease in the growth of the solar industry or our market share, future decline in average selling prices of our products and services, our inability to enter international markets or our failure to capitalize on growth opportunities. We may not achieve profitability for a number of reasons, including any declines in revenue, as discussed above, as well as increases in costs to manufacture our products, the impact of U.S. trade tariffs and the imposition of additional tariffs applicable to our industry or our products. In addition, we expect to incur additional costs and expenses related to the continued development and expansion of our business, including in connection with any future acquisitions, as well as ongoing development and marketing of our
7

TABLE OF CONTENTS

products and services, expanding into new markets and geographies with respect to both manufacturing and sales of our products, maintaining and enhancing our research and development operations, hiring additional personnel, incurring additional overhead costs and incurring greater costs from professional third party advisors as necessary in connection with the expansion of our business and public company operations. We do not know whether our revenue will grow rapidly enough to absorb such costs and expenses, or the extent of such costs and expenses and their impact on our results of operations. If we fail to generate sufficient revenue to support our operations, we may not be able to achieve profitability.
The market for our products and services is highly competitive and rapidly evolving and we expect to face increased competition.
The market for solar energy products and services is highly competitive with relatively low barriers to entry. We principally compete with other solar tracker equipment suppliers, as well as fixed-tilt suppliers. A number of companies have developed or are developing solar tracker systems and other products and services that will compete directly with our products and services in the utility-scale solar energy market. Public competitors in the solar tracker market include, among others, Array Technologies, Inc. and NEXTracker Inc., a subsidiary of Flex Ltd., and there are numerous private company competitors, both domestically and internationally. We expect competition to intensify as new competitors enter the market and existing competitors attempt to increase their market shares. Any failure by us to develop or adopt new or enhanced technologies or processes, or to adapt or react to changes in existing technologies, could result in product obsolescence, the loss of competitiveness of our products, including offering lower cost savings or return on investment relative to competing products, decreased revenue and a loss of market share to competitors.
Several of our existing and potential competitors are significantly larger than we are and may have greater financial, marketing, manufacturing, distribution and customer support resources, as well as broader brand recognition and greater market penetration, especially in certain markets. In addition, our competitors’ existing or future products may result in higher energy production and lower cost of energy for the solar energy projects to which they are deployed, either broadly or in certain conditions. Certain of our competitors offer a more comprehensive set of products, including fixed-tilt systems and one-panel in-portrait tracker systems, which may be attractive to certain customers because they often involve lower up-front costs, whereas we do not. In addition, some of our competitors have more resources and experience in developing or acquiring new products and technologies and creating market awareness for these offerings, as well as more established customer relationships due to their longer operating histories. Since we are a fairly new participant in the solar tracker market, both in the United States and globally, it is essential that we acquire market share from our competitors and our failure to do so could impact our ability to continue to grow our business.
Further, technological advances in the tracker industry are developing rapidly and certain competitors may be able to develop or deploy new products and services more quickly than we can, or that are more reliable or that provide more functionality than ours. For example, we intend to continue to develop and deploy products that can withstand higher windspeeds, are adaptable to irregular site boundaries and undulating terrain and can support larger-format panels, however our competitors may do so more quickly or effectively. In addition, some of our competitors have the financial resources to offer competitive products at aggressive pricing levels, which could cause us to lose sales or market share, or prevent us from gaining sales or market share, or require us to lower prices for our products and services to compete effectively. If we have to reduce our prices, or if we are unable to offset any future reductions in our average selling prices by increasing our sales volume, reducing our costs and expenses or introducing new products and services, our revenue and gross profit would suffer.
We also may face competition from some of our customers or potential customers or other participants in the solar energy industry who evaluate our capabilities against the merits of manufacturing products internally or as a complementary offering to their other products. For example, solar panel manufacturers or project developers could develop or acquire competing technology and, in the case of project developers, use such technology in their solar energy projects. Due to the fact that such customers may not seek to make a profit directly from the manufacture of these products, they may have the ability to manufacture competitive products at a lower cost than we would charge such customers. As a result, our customers or potential customers may purchase fewer of our systems or sell products that compete with our systems, which would negatively impact our revenue and gross profit.
8

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Our solar tracker systems and associated products and services may not achieve broader market acceptance, which would prevent us from increasing our revenue and market share.
If we fail to achieve broader market acceptance of our products and services, including international acceptance of Voyager, our ability to increase our revenue, gain market share and achieve profitability would be adversely impacted. Our ability to achieve broader market acceptance for our products and services may be affected by a number of factors, including:
our ability to produce solar tracker systems that compete favorably against other products on the basis of price, quality, cost of installation, overall cost savings, reliability and performance;
the rate and extent of deployment of tracker systems versus fixed-tilt ground-mounted systems within the solar industry, especially in international markets;
the rate and extent of deployment of two-panel in-portrait tracker systems versus one-panel in-portrait tracker systems;
our ability to timely introduce new products and complete new designs, and qualify and certify our products;
whether project developers, solar asset owners, EPC contractors and solar financing providers will continue to adopt and finance our solar tracker systems and other products and services, including as a result of the quality, reliability and performance of our tracker systems that are in operation, which have a relatively limited history;
the ability of prospective customers to obtain financing, including tax equity financing, for solar energy installations using our products on acceptable terms or at all;
our ability to develop products and related processes that comply with local standards and regulatory requirements, as well as local content requirements; and
our ability to develop and maintain successful relationships with our customers and contract manufacturers.
In addition, our reputation and our relationship with our customers is paramount to us and we have invested heavily in building a brand and solutions associated with high quality, differentiated product offerings and strong customer service. We believe that maintaining the quality of our products and the strength of our reputation is critical to our existing customer relationships and our ability to win new customers and achieve broader market acceptance. Any negative publicity can adversely affect our reputation, and may arise from many sources, including actual or alleged misconduct, errors or improper business practices by employees, officers or current or former directors, including for activities external to FTC Solar, employee claims against us, product defects or failures, future litigation or regulatory actions, matters affecting our financial reporting or compliance with SEC or exchange listing requirements, media coverage, whether accurate or not, governance lapses or workplace misconduct. For example, two of our directors, who are also founders of our business, held senior management roles, including Chief Executive Officer, at SunEdison Inc. (“SunEdison”) in 2016 at the time SunEdison filed for bankruptcy protection under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. One of these directors, Ahmad Chatila, had been one of the defendants in a number of now dismissed federal and state civil actions related to the SunEdison bankruptcy. In addition, we and our officers, directors and/or employees could be involved in future litigation or claims which could result in negative publicity and adversely impact our business, even if without merit. Any such reputational damage could reduce demand for our products, undermine the loyalty of our customers or reduce our ability to attract new customers and recruit and retain employees, and adversely impact our ability to increase our market share and revenue.
A decrease in the price of electricity may harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Decreases in the price of electricity, whether in organized electric markets or with contract counterparties, may negatively impact the owners of solar energy projects or make the purchase of solar energy systems less economically attractive and would likely result in lower sales of our products and services. The price of electricity could decrease as a result of:
construction of a significant number of new, lower-cost power generation plants, including plants utilizing natural gas, renewable energy or other generation technologies;
9

TABLE OF CONTENTS

relief of transmission constraints that enable distant, lower-cost generation to transmit energy less expensively or in greater quantities;
reductions in the price of natural gas or other fuels;
utility rate adjustment and customer class cost reallocation;
decreased electricity demand, including from energy conservation technologies and public initiatives to reduce electricity consumption;
development of smart-grid technologies that lower peak energy requirements;
development of new or lower-cost customer-sited energy storage technologies that have the ability to reduce a customer’s average cost of electricity by shifting load to off-peak times; and
development of new energy generation technologies that provide less expensive energy.
If the cost of electricity generated by solar energy installations incorporating our systems or similar tracker systems is high relative to the cost of electricity from other sources, then our business, financial condition and results of operations may be harmed.
Our success in providing panel agnostic versions of our solar tracker systems will depend in part upon our ability to continue to work closely with leading solar panel manufacturers.
We continue to work on variants of our solar tracker systems that enable direct attachment to solar panels produced by various solar panel manufacturers. The market success of such panel agnostic tracker solutions will depend in part on our ability to continue to work closely with solar panel manufacturers to design solar tracker systems that are compatible with their solar panels, including new larger-format solar panels that are entering the market. The solar panel manufacturer market is large and diversified, with many market participants, and we may not be able to effectively work with all necessary solar panel manufacturers on the development of such compatible tracker solutions for a variety of reasons, including differences in marketing or selling strategy, our relatively limited operating history, competitive considerations, engineering challenges, lack of competitive pricing and technological compatibility. In addition, our ability to form effective partnerships with solar panel manufacturers may be adversely affected by the substantial challenges faced by many of these manufacturers due to declining prices and revenue from sales of solar panels and the tariffs in the United States.
If potential owners of solar energy systems incorporating our solar tracker systems are unable to secure financing on acceptable terms, we could experience a reduction in the demand for our products.
Voyager is new to the market, having achieved product certification and first installation in 2019. While we believe we have quickly built a strong reputation in the industry, resulting in an estimated U.S. tracker market share of approximately 11% as of December 31, 2020, (which was calculated using our MW shipped for fiscal year 2020 compared to a total tracker market shipment estimate from a 2020 Wood Mackenzie report), the limited deployment of Voyager and the short operating history to date for systems that have been installed, coupled with our relatively smaller size and capitalization compared to some of our competitors, could result in lenders or tax equity providers refusing to provide the financing to our customers or their customers that is necessary to purchase solar energy systems based on our product platform on favorable terms, or at all. Additionally, an increase in interest rates, or a reduction in the supply of, or change in the market terms offered for, project debt or tax equity financing, could make it more difficult for our customers or their customers to secure the necessary financing on favorable terms, or at all. Any of these events could result in reduced demand for our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our dependence on a limited number of customers may impair our ability to operate profitably.
We have been dependent in each year since our inception on a small number of customers who generate a significant portion of our business. For the nine months ended September 30, 2021, our largest customer accounted for 56% of our revenue and our two largest customers collectively accounted for approximately 75% of our revenue. For the year ended December 31, 2020, our largest customer accounted for 21% of our revenue and our two largest customers collectively accounted for approximately 40% of our revenue. For the year ended December 31, 2019, our largest customer accounted for 59% of our revenue and our two largest customers collectively accounted for approximately 80% of our revenue. Further, our trade accounts receivable are all from companies within the solar industry, and, as such, we are particularly exposed to industry credit risks.
10

TABLE OF CONTENTS

As a result, we may have difficulty operating profitably if there is a default in payment by any of our customers, we lose an existing order or we are unable to generate new orders from new or existing customers. Furthermore, to the extent that any one customer or a small group of customers continues to account for a large percentage of our revenue, the loss of any such customer or that customer’s inability to meet its payment obligations could materially affect our ability to operate profitably. We anticipate that our dependence on a limited number of customers in any given fiscal year will continue for the foreseeable future. There is always a risk that existing customers will elect not to do business with us in the future or will experience financial difficulties. If we do not book more orders with existing customers, or develop relationships with new customers, we may not be able to increase, or even maintain, our revenue, and our financial condition, results of operations, business and/or prospects may be materially adversely affected.
We invest significant time, resources and management attention to identifying and developing project leads that are subject to our sales and marketing focus and if we are unsuccessful in converting such project leads (or awarded orders) into binding purchase orders, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
The commercial contracting and bidding process for solar project development is long and has multiple steps and uncertainties. We closely monitor the development of potential sales leads through this process. Projects leads may not be converted into binding purchase orders at any stage of the bidding process because either (i) a competitors’ product is selected to fulfill some or all of the order due to price, functionality or other reasons or (ii) the project does not progress to the stage involving the purchase of tracker systems. In addition, there is also a risk that an awarded order (which is an order for which we are in the process of documenting a contract but for which a contract has not yet been signed) will not be converted into a binding purchase order. In addition, there is also a risk that an awarded order once converted to a binding purchase order will not be subject to the same pricing as we originally anticipated. If we fail to convert a significant number of project leads that are subject to our sales and marketing focus (or awarded orders) into binding purchase orders, or the pricing in binding purchase orders is not as favorable to us as originally anticipated in the awarded order, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Due to the seasonality of construction in the United States and step-downs of the investment tax credit (“ITC”), our results of operations may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter, which could make our future performance difficult to predict and could cause our results of operations for a particular period to fall below expectations, resulting in a decline in the price of our common stock.
Our quarterly results of operations are difficult to predict and may fluctuate significantly in the future. Because a substantial majority of our sales since inception have been concentrated in the U.S. market, we have experienced seasonal and quarterly fluctuations in the past as a result of seasonal fluctuations in our customers’ businesses. Additionally, our end-users’ ability to install solar energy systems is affected by weather. For example, during the winter months in cold-weather climates in the United States, construction may be delayed in order to let the ground thaw to reduce costs. Such installation delays can impact the timing of orders for our products. We expect expansion into areas with traditionally warmer climates will result in less pronounced seasonal variations in our revenue profile over time. Additionally, we have historically experienced seasonal fluctuations in the purchase patterns of our customers related to the ITC step-downs, with at least some customers placing large orders in the fourth quarter of a particular year and the corresponding shipments occurring during the first half of the subsequent year, resulting in increased revenue in the first half of the year. There are no ITC step-downs in 2022, but this fluctuation could continue to impact our business when the ITC step-downs resume after 2022.
Given that we are an early-stage company operating in a rapidly growing industry, the true extent of historic fluctuations due to the seasonality of construction and the ITC step-downs may have been masked by our recent growth rates and consequently may not be readily apparent from our historical results of operations and may be difficult to predict. Any substantial decrease in revenue would have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and stock price. Seasonality and fluctuations in sales as described herein may also present cash flow challenges as well as place strain on our supply chain.
11

TABLE OF CONTENTS

We plan to expand into additional international markets, which will expose us to additional regulatory, economic, political, reputational and competitive risks.
We are currently expanding our operations to other countries, which requires significant resources and management attention and subjects us to regulatory, economic, political and competitive risks in addition to those we already face in the United States. There are significant risks and costs inherent in doing business in international markets, including:
difficulty in establishing and managing international operations, including establishment of local customer service operations and local sales operations, and the associated legal compliance costs;
risks related to the usage of international sales representatives, who we do not presently engage but may in the future, who would not be our employees and would not be under our direct control, including legal compliance risks and reputational risks;
acceptance of our single-axis tracker systems or other solar energy products and services in markets in which they have not traditionally been used;
our ability to accurately forecast product demand and manage manufacturing capacity and production;
willingness of our potential customers to incur a higher upfront capital investment for Voyager than may be required for competing fixed-tilt ground-mounted systems;
our ability to reduce production costs to price our products competitively;
availability of government subsidies and economic incentives for solar energy products and services;
timely qualification and certification of new products;
the ability to protect and enforce intellectual property rights abroad;
compliance with sanctions laws and anti-bribery laws, such as the FCPA, by us, our employees, our sales representatives and our business partners;
import and export controls and restrictions and changes in trade regulations;
tariffs and other non-tariff barriers, tax consequences and local content requirements;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates and the requirements of currency control regulations, which might restrict or prohibit conversion of other currencies into U.S. dollars; and
political or social unrest or economic instability in a specific country or region in which we operate.
We have limited experience with international regulatory environments and market practices and may not be able to penetrate or successfully operate in the markets we may choose to enter or have entered or otherwise effectively mitigate the regulatory, economic, political, reputational and competitive risks that are inherent when operating in such environments. In addition, we may incur significant expenses as a result of our international expansion, and we may not be successful. Our failure to successfully manage these risks could harm our international operations and have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.
We may acquire other companies or technologies, which could divert our management’s attention, result in dilution to our stockholders, reduce our available cash that could be used for other purposes and otherwise disrupt our operations and harm our results of operations.
In some circumstances, we may decide to grow our business through the acquisition of businesses and technologies rather than through internal development. The identification of suitable acquisition candidates can be difficult, time consuming and costly, and we may not be able to successfully complete identified acquisitions. The risks we face in connection with acquisitions include, but are not limited to:
diversion of management time and focus from operating our business to addressing acquisition integration challenges;
retention of key employees from the acquired company;
failure to realize long-term value and synergies from the acquisition;
failure to realize incremental revenue that was anticipated to result from the acquisition;
12

TABLE OF CONTENTS

synchronization and integration of the operations of the acquired company with our operations, including blending of corporate cultures;
assumption of liabilities for activities of the acquired company before the acquisition; and
litigation or other claims in connection with the acquisition, including claims from terminated employees, customers, former stockholders or other third parties.
Our failure to address these risks or other risks encountered in connection with future acquisitions and investments could cause us to fail to realize the anticipated benefits of these acquisitions or investments and incur unanticipated liabilities, or otherwise harm our business. Future acquisitions also could result in dilutive issuances of our equity securities, the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities or amortization expenses, any of which could harm our financial condition. Also, the anticipated benefits of any acquisitions may not materialize. Any of these risks, if realized, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Defects or quality or performance problems in our products could result in loss of customers, reputational damage and decreased revenue, and we may face warranty, indemnity and product liability claims arising from defective products.
Although we set stringent quality standards for our products, they may contain errors or defects, especially when first introduced or when new generations are released. Errors, defects or poor performance can arise due to design flaws, defects in raw materials or components, manufacturing difficulties and quality control failures, which can affect both the quality and the yield of the product. Any actual or perceived errors, defects or poor performance in our products could result in replacements or recalls, remediation requests, shipment delays, rejection of our products, damage to our reputation, lost revenue, diversion of our engineering personnel from our product development efforts, diversion of our sales personnel from sales efforts and increases in customer service and support costs, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Furthermore, defective products may give rise to warranty, indemnity, product liability, liquidated damages or other contractual claims against us that exceed any revenue or profit we receive from the affected products, including claims for damages related to aspects or components of a solar energy project that go beyond the scope of our product offerings. Our limited warranties cover defects in materials and workmanship of our products. As a result, we bear the risk of warranty claims long after we have sold products and recognized revenue. Our accrued reserves for warranty claims are based on our assumptions and we do not have a long history of making such assumptions. As a result, these assumptions could prove to be materially different from the warranty obligations that we may be required to compensate customers for in the case of defective products. Our failure to accurately predict future warranty claims could result in unexpected volatility in, and have a material adverse effect on, our financial condition. In addition, while we seek to support our warranty obligations with warranties from our contract manufacturers, such warranties may not be of the same scope as our warranty obligations, or we may not be able to effectively enforce our rights thereunder.
If one of our products were to cause injury to someone or cause property damage, including as a result of product malfunctions, defects or improper installation, then we could be exposed to product liability claims. We could incur significant costs and liabilities if we are sued and if damages are awarded against us, which could far exceed the revenue we recognize in connection with the related project. Further, any product liability claim we face could be expensive to defend and could divert management’s attention. The successful assertion of a product liability claim against us could result in potentially significant monetary damages, penalties or fines, subject us to adverse publicity, damage our reputation and competitive position and adversely affect sales of our products. In addition, product liability claims, injuries, defects or other problems experienced by other companies in the solar energy industry could lead to unfavorable market conditions for the industry as a whole, and may have an adverse effect on our ability to attract new customers, thus harming our growth and financial performance.
If we fail to retain key personnel or if we fail to attract additional qualified personnel, we may not be able to achieve our anticipated level of growth and our business could suffer.
Our future success and ability to implement our business strategy depend, in part, on our ability to attract and retain key personnel, and on the continued contributions of members of our senior management team and key technical personnel, each of whom would be difficult to replace. All of our employees, including our senior management, are free to terminate their employment relationships with us at any time. Competition for highly skilled
13

TABLE OF CONTENTS

individuals with technical expertise is extremely intense in our industry, and we face challenges identifying, hiring and retaining qualified personnel in many areas of our business, with such challenges intensifying during the second half of 2021. Integrating new employees into our team could be disruptive to our operations, require substantial resources and management attention and ultimately prove unsuccessful. An inability to retain our senior management and other key personnel or to attract additional qualified personnel could limit or delay our strategic efforts, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Risks Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic
We face risks related to actual or threatened health epidemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and other outbreaks, which could significantly disrupt our operations.
Our business has been and could continue to be adversely impacted by the effects of a widespread outbreak of contagious disease, including the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Any widespread outbreak of contagious diseases, or other adverse public health developments, has in the past caused and in the future could cause disruption to, among other things, our contract manufacturers located in the United States and elsewhere around the world, which has in the past caused and in the future could cause delays in our supply chain and product shipments and delays in project completion, as well as reductions in customer support trainings and monitoring of our contract manufacturers, which could adversely affect our business, operations and customer relationships.
To date we have experienced significant supply chain disruptions that have caused delays in product deliveries due to diminished vessel capacity, diminished supplier capacity (including local shutdowns and capacity restrictions), port detainment of vessels, port congestion, maritime congestion, labor shortages and other stresses on cargo infrastructure (including ports, warehouses, trucking and rail transportation), in each case, as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic (including as a result of multiple COVID-19 variants), which have contributed to increased shipping costs and increased lead times for delivery of our tracker systems. For instance, we experienced a COVID-related supplier production slowdown in India at the end of March 2021, which continued through 2021 due to the emergence of the Omicron variant. We expect that supply chain challenges that originated during COVID-19 will continue for the foreseeable future. Many of our contracts with customers include liquidated damages that are payable for shipment delays, and we have in the past incurred and may in the future incur liabilities under such provisions if we continue to face these challenges.
Additionally, ground operations at project sites have been impacted by health-related restrictions and worker absenteeism, which resulted in delays in project completion in 2020 and 2021 and may result in additional delays in the future. Although we are not primarily responsible for the construction or installation process at project sites, any delays due to the COVID-19 pandemic could negatively impact our customer relationships and adversely affect our business. Such restrictions have also hindered our ability to provide on-site support and trainings to our customers and conduct inspections of our contract manufacturers to ensure compliance with approved vendor standards, and may continue to do so in the future.
The macroeconomic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting economic downturn may also have the effect of heightening other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section, including those regarding the ability of our customers to raise capital, customer demand and our dependence on timely performance of our manufacturing partners.
The duration and intensity of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and resulting disruption to our operations is uncertain and continues to evolve as of the date of this registration statement. Accordingly, management will continue to monitor the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our financial condition, cash flows, operations, contract manufacturers, industry, workforce and customer relationships.
Risks Related to Intellectual Property
If we fail, in whole or in part, to obtain, maintain, protect, defend or enforce our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, our business and results of operations could be materially harmed.
Our success partly depends on our ability to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights. We rely on a combination of patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets to establish and protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, as well as unfair competition laws, confidentiality and license agreements and other contractual arrangements. As of December 31, 2021, we had six pending patent applications and 52 issued patents in the United States and a total of twelve pending patent applications and nine issued patents in jurisdictions
14

TABLE OF CONTENTS

outside of the United States including Australia, Canada, China, Germany, India, South Korea and Mexico. Also as of December 31, 2021, we had one registered trademark, for “VOYAGER TRACKER,” and five pending applications to register trademarks in the United States. Our pending patent and trademark applications or other applications for intellectual property registrations may not be approved, issued or granted and our existing and future intellectual property rights may not be valid, enforceable or sufficiently broad to prevent competitors from using technology similar to or the same as our proprietary technology, to prevent our contract manufacturers from providing similar technology to our competitors or to sufficiently allow us to develop and maintain recognized brands. Additionally, our intellectual property rights may afford only limited protection of our intellectual property and may not (i) prevent our competitors or contract manufacturers from duplicating our processes or technology, (ii) prevent our competitors from gaining access to our proprietary information and technology or (iii) permit us to gain or maintain a competitive advantage. Any impairment or other failure to obtain sufficient intellectual property protection could impede our ability to market our products and services, negatively affect our competitive position and harm our business and operating results, including forcing us to, among other things, rebrand or re-design our affected products and services. In countries where we have not applied for patent protection or trademark or other intellectual property registration or where effective patent, trademark, trade secret and other intellectual property laws and judicial systems may not be available to the same extent as in the United States, we may be at greater risk that our proprietary rights will be circumvented, misappropriated, infringed or otherwise violated.
To protect our unregistered intellectual property, including our trade secrets and know-how, we rely in part on trade secret laws and confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and independent contractors. We also require third parties, such as our customers and contract manufacturers, that may have access to our proprietary technologies and information to enter into non-disclosure agreements or other contracts containing obligations to maintain the confidentiality of our intellectual property. Such measures, however, provide only limited protection, and our confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements and other agreements containing confidentiality provisions may not prevent unauthorized disclosure or use of our confidential information, especially after our employees or third parties end their employment or engagement with us, and may not provide us with an adequate remedy in the event of such disclosure. Furthermore, competitors or other third parties may independently discover our trade secrets, copy or reverse engineer our products or services or portions thereof, or develop similar technology. If we fail to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, or if such intellectual property and proprietary rights are infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated, our business, results of operations or financial condition could be materially harmed.
We may need to defend ourselves against third party claims that we are infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating third party intellectual property rights, which could divert management’s attention, cause us to incur significant costs and prevent us from selling or using the products, services or technologies to which such rights relate.
Our competitors and other third parties hold numerous patents related to technologies used in our industry, and may hold or obtain patents, copyrights, trademarks or other intellectual property rights that could prevent, limit or interfere with our ability to make, use, develop, sell or market our products and services, which could make it more difficult for us to operate our business. From time to time we may be subject to claims of infringement, misappropriation or other violation of patents or other intellectual property rights or licensing fee and royalty claims and related litigation, and, if we gain greater recognition in the market, we face a higher risk of being the subject of these types of claims. For example, in early 2021 we learned that a claim had been filed against us seeking damages for alleged breach of contract and other claims related to a patent license agreement and consulting relationship, and the same plaintiff subsequently filed a separate lawsuit against us alleging a claim for patent infringement in respect of the same underlying technology. See “Our Business – Legal Proceedings”. Regardless of their merit, responding to such claims can be time consuming, can divert management’s attention and resources, and may cause us to incur significant expenses in litigation or settlement. While we believe that our products and services do not infringe in any material respect upon any valid intellectual property rights of third parties, we may not be successful in defending against any such claims. If we do not successfully defend or settle an intellectual property claim, we could be liable for significant monetary damages and could be prohibited from continuing to use certain technology, business methods, content or brands, could be prohibited from continuing to sell certain products or services, or could be required to license such intellectual property from the applicable third party, which could require us to pay significant royalties, increasing our operating expenses. Even if we do reach a settlement agreement to resolve an intellectual property claim, such settlement agreement could also result in our making a significant monetary payment or paying significant royalties. If a license is not available at all or not available on reasonable terms, we may be required to
15

TABLE OF CONTENTS

develop or license a non-infringing alternative, either of which could require significant effort and expense. If we cannot license or develop a non-infringing alternative, we would be forced to limit or stop sales of our offerings and may be unable to effectively compete. Any of these results would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We use “open source” software, and any failure to comply with the terms of one or more open source licenses could negatively affect our business.
Our products and services use certain software licensed by its authors or other third parties under so-called “open source” licenses. Some of these open source licenses may contain requirements that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works that we create based upon the open source software, and that we license such modifications or derivative works under the terms of a particular open source license or other license granting third parties rights with respect to such software. In certain circumstances, if we combine our proprietary software with certain open source software, we could be required to release the source code for such proprietary software. Additionally, to the extent that we do not comply with the terms of the open source licenses to which we are subject, or such terms are interpreted by a court in a manner different than our own interpretation of such terms, then we may be required to disclose certain of our proprietary software or take other actions that could negatively impact our business. Further, the use of open source software can lead to vulnerabilities that may make our software susceptible to attack, and open source licenses generally do not provide warranties or controls on the origin of the software. While we attempt to utilize open source software in a manner that helps alleviate these risks, our attempts may not be successful.
Risks Related to Manufacturing and Supply Chain
We depend upon a limited number of outside contract manufacturers, and our operations could be disrupted if our relationships with these contract manufacturers are compromised.
We do not have internal manufacturing capabilities, and currently rely on contract manufacturers to build all of our products. Our reliance on a limited number of contract manufacturers makes us vulnerable to possible capacity constraints and reduced control over component availability, quality, delivery schedules, manufacturing yields and costs. We currently have long-term supply contracts with only a limited number of our contract manufacturers and for all other contract manufacturers, they are not obligated to supply products to us for any period, in any specified quantity or at any certain price beyond the single delivery contemplated by the relevant purchase order. While we may enter into additional long-term master supply agreements with our contract manufacturers in the future as the volume of our business grows in a way that makes such additional arrangements economically feasible, we may not be successful in negotiating such agreements on favorable terms or at all. With respect to such long-term master supply agreements that we have entered into, and that we may enter into in the future, we could be subject to terms that may be harmful to our business, including in the event that we do not have the customer demand necessary to utilize the products that we are required to purchase, or in the event that we are required to purchase products at a price in excess of the prevailing market rate. Any change in our relationships with our contract manufacturers or changes to contractual terms of our agreements with them could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
The revenue that certain of our contract manufacturers generate from our orders represents a relatively small percentage of their overall revenue. As a result, fulfilling our orders may not be considered a priority in the event of constrained ability to fulfill all of their customer obligations in a timely manner. In addition, some of the facilities in which our products are manufactured are located outside of the United States. Our use of international facilities may increase supply risk, including the risk of supply interruptions or reductions in manufacturing quality or controls.
We may be negatively impacted by the deterioration in financial conditions of our limited number of contract manufacturers. If any of our contract manufacturers were unable or unwilling to manufacture the components that we require for our products in sufficient volumes, at high-quality levels, on a timely basis and pursuant to existing supply agreement terms, due to financial conditions or otherwise, we would have to identify, qualify and select acceptable alternative contract manufacturers. An alternative contract manufacturer may not be available to us when needed or may not be in a position to satisfy our quality or production requirements on commercially reasonable terms, including price and timing. Any significant interruption or delays in manufacturing would require us to reduce or delay our supply of products to our customers or increase our shipping costs to make up for delays in manufacturing, if possible, which in turn could reduce our revenue, cause us to incur delay liquidated damages or other liabilities
16

TABLE OF CONTENTS

to our customers, harm our relationships with our customers, damage our reputation or cause us to forego potential revenue opportunities. While we may have contractual remedies against our contract manufacturers for the supply chain malfunctions noted above to support any liabilities to our customers, such remedies may not be sufficient in scope, we may not be able to effectively enforce such remedies and we may incur significant costs in enforcing such remedies.
We may experience delays, disruptions or quality control problems in our contract manufacturers’ manufacturing operations, which could result in reputational damage and other liabilities to our customers.
Our product development, manufacturing and testing processes are complex and require significant technological and production-related expertise. Such processes involve a number of precise steps from design to production. Any change in our processes could cause one or more production errors, requiring a temporary suspension or delay in our production line until the errors can be researched, identified, analyzed and properly addressed and rectified. This may occur particularly as we introduce new products, modify our engineering and production techniques and/or expand our capacity. In addition, delays, disruptions or our failure to maintain appropriate quality assurance processes could result in increased product failures, loss of customers, increased warranty claims, delay liquidated damages claims or other liabilities to our customers, increased production and logistics costs and delays. While we may have contractual remedies against our contract manufacturers for such quality assurance failures to support any liabilities to our customers, such remedies may not be sufficient in scope, we may not be able to effectively enforce such remedies and we may incur significant costs in enforcing such remedies. Any of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We depend on a limited number of contract manufacturers for key components of our products to adequately meet anticipated demand. Due to the limited number of such contract manufacturers, any cessation of operations or production or any shortage, delay, price change, imposition of tariffs or duties or other limitation on our ability to obtain the components we use could result in sales delays, cancellations and loss of market share.
We depend on a limited number of contract manufacturers for certain key components used to manufacture our products, making us susceptible to quality issues, shortages and price changes. Some of our contract manufacturers have in the past stopped producing or limited their production of our components, faced supply constraints or increased prices on the raw materials for their component, ceased operations or been acquired by, or entered into exclusive arrangements with, one or more of our competitors, and such actions may occur again in the future. Additionally, these manufacturers could stop selling to us at commercially reasonable prices, or at all. Because there are a limited number of contract manufacturers of the key components used to manufacture our products, it may be difficult to quickly identify alternate manufacturers or to qualify alternative components on commercially reasonable terms, and our ability to satisfy customer demand may be adversely affected. Transitioning to or redesigning a product to accommodate a new contract manufacturer would result in additional costs and delays. These outcomes could harm our business or financial performance.
Any interruption in the supply of limited source components for our products would adversely affect our ability to meet scheduled product deliveries to our customers, could result in lost revenue or higher expenses and would harm our business.
The interruption of the flow of components from international contract manufacturers could disrupt our supply chain, including as a result of the imposition of additional laws, duties, tariffs and other charges on imports and exports.
We purchase some of our components outside of the United States through arrangements with various international contract manufacturers. Political, social or economic instability in these regions, or in other regions where our products are made, could cause disruptions in trade, including, without limitation, exports to the United States. As detailed below, trade disputes between various countries, particularly China and the United States, have created uncertainty with respect to the ability to import certain technologies and products into the United States, as well as in respect of tariff impacts on the costs of some of our components. In addition, recent withhold release orders (“WRO”) related to polysilicon requires panel importers to demonstrate that polysilicon used in their panels has not been sourced using forced labor. To date, U.S. Customs and Border Protection has used the WRO to detain solar panels, which has disrupted the U.S. solar installation market and caused additional uncertainty on future projects. These WRO actions, as well as other governmental actions that have or may impact the importation of solar panels
17

TABLE OF CONTENTS

(including the recently passed Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act ), have and could continue to negatively impact the global solar market and the timing and viability of solar projects to which we sell our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. While our products do not contain polysilicon, the degree of our exposure is dependent on, among other things, the impact of these measures on the projects that are also intended to use our products, with such impact being largely out of our control. Other events that could also cause disruptions to our supply chain include, but are not limited to:
additional trade enforcement actions that lead to imposition of additional tariffs and other charges on imports and exports that could relate to imports from a number of different countries;
the potential imposition of restrictions on our acquisition, importation or installation of equipment under future U.S. regulations implementing the Executive Order on Securing the United States Bulk-Power System;
quotas imposed by bilateral trade agreements;
foreign currency fluctuations;
public health issues and epidemic diseases, their effects (including any disruptions they may cause) or the perception of their effects, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic; and
significant labor disputes, such as transportation worker strikes.
Failure by our contract manufacturers to use ethical business practices and comply with applicable laws and regulations may adversely affect our business.
While our contract manufacturers are required to adhere to certain business practices to remain on our approved vendor list, which we monitor on a continuous basis, we do not control our contract manufacturers’ operations or their business practices. The travel restrictions and shelter-in-place orders in response to the COVID-19 pandemic have hindered and may continue to hinder our ability to monitor our contract manufacturers, even with the use of local third party contractors. Additionally, our contract manufacturers may not follow ethical business practices, such as fair wage practices or comply with environmental, safety, labor, sanctions and anti-corruption laws and other local laws or other regulations of which we may not be aware. For example, as we expand our business into foreign jurisdictions, the manufacture of our products may be subject to local content requirements, which require our products to incorporate materials from certain local providers. A lack of demonstrated compliance could damage our reputation and lead us to seek alternative manufacturers, which could increase our costs and result in delayed delivery of our products, product shortages or other disruptions of our operations. Violation of labor or other laws by our contract manufacturers or the divergence of a contract manufacturer’s labor or other practices from those generally accepted as ethical in the United States or other markets in which we do business could also attract negative publicity for us and harm our business.
We may not have sufficient insurance coverage to cover business continuity.
We rely on a limited number of contract manufacturers and, as a result, a sustained or repeated interruption in the manufacturing of our products by such outsourced manufacturers due to fire, flood, war, pandemic or natural disasters, and/or an interruption in the provision of the required components for our business by these manufacturers may interfere with our ability to sell our products to our customers in a timely manner. The nature of our business and our size makes it difficult to insure some or all of the possible harms that could result if we fail to sell and deliver our products in a timely manner, which may adversely affect our financial results.
We and our contract manufacturers are dependent on domestic and international transportation and logistics markets to deliver our products. If we or our contract manufacturers experience disruptions, unavailability or escalated pricing in the transportation and logistics markets, which include trucking, vessels, ports and related infrastructure and logistics, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely impacted.
We and our contract manufacturers rely on domestic and international transportation and logistics markets to deliver our products to customers. Our ability and the ability of our contract manufacturers to deliver our products could be adversely impacted by shortages in available cargo capacity, changes by carriers and transportation companies in policies and practices, such as scheduling, pricing, payment terms and frequency of service or increases in the cost of fuel, taxes and labor, and other factors, such as labor strikes and work stoppages, not within their
18

TABLE OF CONTENTS

control. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in diminished cargo capacity and port detainment of vessels which have caused delays in delivery of our products to project sites. Material interruptions in service or stoppages in transportation and logistics markets, whether caused by strike, work stoppage, lock-out, slowdown or otherwise, and escalated pricing in transportation and logistics markets could materially and adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Risks Related to Government Regulations and Legal Compliance
The reduction, elimination or expiration of government incentives for, or regulations mandating the use of, as well as corporate commitments to the use of, renewable energy and solar energy specifically could reduce demand for solar energy systems and harm our business.
Federal, state, local and foreign government bodies provide incentives to owners, end-users, distributors, system integrators and manufacturers of solar energy systems to promote solar electricity in the form of rebates, tax credits and other financial incentives, such as system performance payments, payments of renewable energy credits associated with renewable energy generation and an exclusion of solar energy systems from property tax assessments. For example, the solar ITC provides a U.S. federal income tax credit for developers of commercial solar projects. See “Our Business—Government Incentives” for further information. Under existing tax law, the ITC is 30% for projects that began construction prior to 2020 and are placed in service before 2026, and is reduced to 26% for projects that began construction in 2020, 2021 or 2022 and are placed in service before 2026, to 22% for projects that began construction in 2023 and are placed in service before 2026 and to 10% for projects that began construction after 2023 or placed in service after 2025 regardless of when construction began.
In addition, similar incentives may exist in, or be developed outside, of the United States, which could impact demand for our products and services as we expand our business into foreign jurisdictions. For example, our international customers and end-users may have access to feed-in-tariffs, tax deductions and grants toward equipment purchases. Our ability to successfully penetrate new geographic markets may depend on new countries adopting, to the extent such incentives are not currently in place, and maintaining such incentives to promote solar electricity.
The range and duration of these incentives vary widely by jurisdiction. Our customers typically use our systems for utility scale grid-connected electric power generation projects that sell solar power under a power purchase agreement or into an organized electric market. This segment of the solar industry has historically depended in large part on the availability and size of government incentives and regulations mandating the use of renewable energy. Consequently, the reduction, elimination or expiration of government incentives for grid-connected solar electricity or regulations mandating the use of renewable energy may negatively affect the competitiveness of solar electricity relative to conventional and non-solar renewable sources of electricity, and could harm or halt the growth of the solar electricity industry and our business. These subsidies and incentives may expire on a particular date, end when the allocated funding is exhausted or be reduced or terminated as solar energy adoption rates increase or as a result of legal challenges, the adoption of new statutes or regulations or the passage of time. These reductions or terminations may occur without warning, which would negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Corporate social responsibility efforts, such as net zero emission pledges, have fostered private sector investment in solar energy systems in recent years. To the extent that these corporate policies are redirected away from renewable energy in general or solar energy in particular, our business, financial condition and results of operation may be negatively impacted.
In addition, federal, state, local and foreign government bodies have implemented various policies that are intended to promote renewable electricity generally or solar electricity in particular, like renewable portfolio standards (“RPSs”) that has been adopted by certain states. RPSs may be reduced or eliminated from time to time, particularly as state-level government administrations change. Additionally, the policies of the Trump administration have created regulatory uncertainty in the renewable energy industry, including the solar energy industry. For example, in June 2017, President Trump announced that the United States would withdraw from participation in the Paris Agreement on climate change mitigation, and in June 2019, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued the final Affordable Clean Energy rule and repealed the Clean Power Plan. While the Biden administration has since rejoined the Paris Agreement, its larger policy initiatives intended to promote renewable energy depend on legislative and regulatory outcomes that may be difficult to achieve in the current political climate. In November 2021, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the Build Back Better Act, which contained extensive renewable energy incentives aimed at combating the climate crisis. The U.S. Senate has yet to approve such legislation, and a key U.S. senator
19

TABLE OF CONTENTS

whose vote is required for passage has stated that he will not support such legislation in its current form. Any modifications or further delay in passing such legislation could have a negative impact on the renewable energy industry, including the demand for solar energy projects to which we sell our products.
In general, the cost of solar power currently exceeds retail electricity rates, and we believe this trend will continue in the near term. Electric utility companies or generators of electricity from other non-solar renewable sources of electricity may successfully lobby for changes in the relevant legislation in their markets that are harmful to the solar industry. Furthermore, electric utility companies may establish pricing structures or interconnection requirements that could adversely affect our sales and be harmful to the solar generation industry.
The concentration of our sales in a limited number of specific markets increases risks associated with the reduction, elimination or expiration of governmental subsidies and economic incentives for solar energy products.
Approximately 85.2%, 100% and 100% of our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 and the nine months ended September 30, 2021, respectively, resulted from sales within the United States and we expect to continue to generate a substantial amount of our revenue from the United States in the future. There are a number of important incentives that are expected to phase down or terminate in the future, which could adversely affect sales of our products in the United States, such as the step-downs of the ITC that resume after 2022 and cease in 2024. Additionally, as we further expand to other countries, changes in incentive programs or electricity policies could negatively affect returns on our investments in those countries as well as our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Existing electric utility industry policies and regulations, and any subsequent changes, may present technical, regulatory and economic barriers to the purchase and use of solar energy systems that may significantly reduce demand for our products and services or harm our ability to compete.
Federal, state, local and foreign government regulations and policies concerning the broader electric utility industry, as well as internal policies and regulations promulgated by electric utilities and organized electric markets with respect to fees, practices and rate design, heavily influence the market for electricity generation products and services. These regulations and policies often affect electricity pricing and the interconnection of generation facilities, and can be subject to frequent modifications by governments, regulatory bodies, utilities and market operators. For example, changes in fee structures, electricity pricing structures and system permitting, interconnection and operating requirements can deter purchases of renewable energy products, including solar energy systems, by reducing anticipated revenue or increasing costs or regulatory burdens for would-be system purchasers. The resulting reductions in demand for solar energy systems could harm our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
A significant recent development in renewable energy pricing policies in the United States occurred on July 16, 2020, when the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“FERC”) issued a final rule amending regulations that implement the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (“PURPA”). The net effect of these changes is uncertain, however, in general, FERC’s PURPA reforms have the potential to reduce prices for the output from certain new renewable generation projects while also narrowing the scope of PURPA eligibility for new projects. These effects could reduce demand for PURPA-eligible solar energy systems and could harm our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, changes in our products or changes in export and import laws and implementing regulations may create delays in the introduction of new products in international markets, prevent our customers from deploying our products internationally or, in some cases, prevent the export or import of our products to certain countries altogether. Any such event could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in the U.S. trade environment, including the imposition of import tariffs, could adversely affect the amount or timing of our revenue, results of operations or cash flows.
Trade policies and international disputes at times result in increased tariffs, trade barriers and other restrictive measures. In particular, China and the United States have imposed significant tariffs on imports of goods from their respective countries in recent years. These developments and any further tariff increases could potentially impact our suppliers’ hardware component prices and impact any plans to provide services in China and other international markets. These developments could have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets.
20

TABLE OF CONTENTS

China is a major producer of solar cells and other solar products. Certain solar cells, modules, laminates and panels from China are subject to tariffs imposed by the United States. Tariffs on solar cells, modules and inverters in China may put upwards pressure on prices of energy products in other countries.
One category of tariffs that may apply to such goods is U.S. antidumping and countervailing duties (“AD/CVD”), depending on the exporter supplying the product. These duties are imposed by the U.S. government as a result of determinations that the U.S. industry was materially injured as a result of such imports being sold at less than fair value and subsidized by the Chinese government. The AD/CVD discussed above are subject to annual review and may be increased or decreased.
Furthermore, the United States continues to impose tariffs on goods imported from China under Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 (the “Section 301 Tariffs”). Although these tariffs were reduced in connection with the “Phase One” Agreement between the United States and China, which was signed in January 2020, the United States continues to impose tariffs ranging from 7.5% to 25% on more than $300 billion in Chinese imports. These tariffs apply to a range of products, including solar products such as modules, inverters, and non-lithium-ion batteries. Since these tariffs impact the purchase price of solar products, they raise the cost associated with purchasing these solar products from China and reduce the competitive pressure on providers of solar products not subject to these tariffs.
In 2018 the President of the United States announced the imposition of tariffs on certain imported solar cells and modules under Section 201 of the Trade Act of 1974 (the “Section 201 Tariffs”). These tariffs apply on a global basis, to cells and modules from a variety of jurisdictions. The amount of these tariffs has declined over time, and is currently 15% ad valorem. The tariffs are set to expire on February 6, 2022. However, the U.S. International Trade Commission (the “USITC”) recently recommended that President Biden extend the Section 201 Tariffs beyond this date. It is unclear whether President Biden will follow this recommendation, and if he does what the scope and rate of these tariffs would be. If these tariffs are extended, they would continue to impose cost pressure on our suppliers. The tariffs could raise the price of imported solar products or enable domestic producers to raise prices for their solar products, increasing the overall cost of solar energy systems. This, in turn, would reduce our ability to offer competitive pricing in certain markets.
Finally, in March 2018, the United States imposed a 25% tariff on steel imports and a 10% tariff on aluminum imports pursuant to Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962. While these tariffs are no longer in place with respect to imports from many countries, any additional tariff actions affecting steel and aluminum could result in interruptions in the supply chain and impact costs and our gross margins.
Tariffs currently in place and the possibility of additional tariffs in the future have created uncertainty in the industry. If the price of solar systems in the United States increases, the use of solar systems could become less economically feasible and could reduce our gross margins or reduce demand for solar systems manufactured and sold, which in turn may decrease demand for our products. Additionally, existing or future tariffs may negatively affect our customers and manufacturing partners. Such outcomes could adversely affect the amount or timing of our revenue, results of operations or cash flows, and continuing uncertainty could cause sales volatility, price fluctuations or supply shortages or cause our customers to advance or delay their purchase of our products. Governments may take further trade-related actions, which may include additional or increased tariffs and trade restrictions, and we may be unable to quickly and effectively react to such actions. While we have taken actions with the intention of mitigating the effect of tariffs on our business by reducing our reliance on China, we may not succeed or be able to continue to do so on attractive terms or at all. For example, in 2019, 90% of our supply chain was sourced from China. However, by the end of 2020, we had qualified suppliers outside of China for all our commodities and reduced the extent to which our supply chain for U.S.-based projects is subject to existing tariffs, as we have entered into partnerships with manufacturers in many other countries worldwide that will be able to independently supply our U.S. customers.
Actions addressing determinations of forced labor practices in China and legislation and policies adopted to address such practices may disrupt the global supply of solar panels and affect our business.
Since 2016, U.S. Customs and Border Protection has issued sixteen WROs directed at forced labor in China, including ten directed specifically at activity in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. As a result of these orders, certain products, including solar panels manufactured with polysilicon from Xinjiang, are effectively barred from entering the United States. Despite our due diligence efforts, as well as contractual provisions we put in place that forbid our suppliers from using forced labor or components that were produced using forced labor, we cannot determine with certainty whether our suppliers may violate our contracts or become subject to a WRO, which could
21

TABLE OF CONTENTS

subject us to legal, reputational, and other risks. If this were to occur, we might have to find alternative suppliers on short notice, resulting in construction delays and disruption and higher costs. Additionally, WROs have and could continue to impact the importation of solar panels. While we are not directly involved in the importation of solar panels, such WROs can negatively impact the global solar market and the timing and viability of solar projects to which we sell our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
On December 23, 2021, President Biden signed into law the Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act (H.R. 6256). Among other things, this legislation presumptively bans the import of all products made, wholly or in part, in Xinjiang, unless importers can establish that the specific shipment is not the product of forced labor. While we do not currently expect that this law will directly affect our supplies, since we do not believe that our suppliers source materials from Xinjiang for the products they sell to us, other renewable energy companies’ attempts to shift suppliers in response to this law, WROs, or other policy developments could result in shortages, delays, and/or price increases that could disrupt our own supply chain or cause our suppliers to renegotiate existing arrangements with us or fail to perform on such obligations. Broader policy uncertainty could also reduce Chinese panel production, affecting supplies and/or prices for panels, regardless of supplier. While we have developed multiple supply sources in a variety of countries, we could still be adversely affected by increases in our costs, negative publicity related to the industry, or other adverse consequences (including the unavailability of panels for projects to which we sell our products) to our business.
Changes in tax laws or regulations that are applied adversely to us or our customers could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Changes in corporate tax rates, tax incentives for renewable energy projects, the realization of net deferred tax assets relating to our U.S. operations, the taxation of foreign earnings and the deductibility of expenses under future tax reform legislation could have a material impact on the value of our deferred tax assets, could result in significant one-time charges in the current or future taxable years, and could increase our future U.S. tax expense, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We could be adversely affected by any violations of the FCPA and other foreign anti-bribery laws, as well as of export controls and economic sanctions laws.
The FCPA generally prohibits companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to foreign government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Other countries in which we operate also have anti-bribery laws, some of which prohibit improper payments to government and non-government persons and entities. We have adopted policies that mandate compliance with these anti-bribery laws. However, we currently operate in and intend to further expand into, many parts of the world that have experienced governmental corruption to some degree and, in certain circumstances, strict compliance with anti-bribery laws may conflict with local customs and practices. In addition, due to the level of regulation in our industry, our entry into certain jurisdictions requires substantial government contact where norms can differ from U.S. standards. It is possible that our employees, subcontractors, agents and partners may take actions in violation of our policies and anti-bribery laws. Furthermore, we are subject to rules and regulations of the United States and other countries relating to export controls and economic sanctions, including, but not limited to, trade sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control within the U.S. Department of the Treasury, as well as the Export Administration Regulations administered by the Department of Commerce. These regulations may limit our ability to market, sell, distribute or otherwise transfer our products or technology to prohibited countries or persons. Any violation of such laws, even if prohibited by our policies, could subject us to criminal or civil penalties or other sanctions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and reputation.
Risks Related to Information Technology and Data Privacy
Failure to effectively utilize information technology systems could disrupt our business or reduce our sales or profitability.
We rely extensively on various information technology systems, including data centers, hardware, software and applications to manage many aspects of our business, including to operate and provide our products and services, to process and record transactions, to enable effective communication systems, to track inventory flow, to manage logistics and to generate performance and financial reports. We are dependent on the integrity, security and consistent operations of these systems and related back-up systems. Our computer and information technology systems and the
22

TABLE OF CONTENTS

third party systems upon which we rely are also subject to damage, interruption or shutdown from a number of causes, including computer viruses, malware, phishing or distributed denial-of-service attacks, security breaches or cyber-attacks, which could lead to delays in our business operations or subject us to liability and, if significant or extreme, affect our results of operations. In addition, any interruption in the operation of our website or information technology systems could cause us to suffer reputational harm or to lose sales.
Unauthorized disclosure of personal or sensitive data or confidential information, whether through a breach of our computer or information technology systems or otherwise, could severely hurt our business.
Some aspects of our business involve the collection, receipt, use, storage, processing and transmission of personal information, including that of our customers’ and end-users of our customers’ solar energy systems, website visitors, employees, contract manufacturers and other third parties. We may collect personal information, including names, addresses, e-mail addresses, credit information, and energy production statistics and consumer preferences, some of which is entrusted to third party service providers. We increasingly rely on commercially available systems, software, tools (including encryption technology) and monitoring technologies to provide security and oversight for processing, transmission, storage and protection of confidential information and personal data. Despite the security measures we have in place, our facilities and systems, and those of third parties with which we do business, may be vulnerable to security breaches, acts of vandalism and theft (including misappropriation of our financial resources), computer viruses, misplaced or lost data, programming and/or human errors, or other similar events, and an inadvertent or unauthorized use or disclosure could occur or third parties could gain unauthorized access to this type of confidential information and personal data.
Electronic security attacks designed to gain access to personal, sensitive or confidential data by breaching mission critical systems of large organizations are constantly evolving, and high profile electronic security breaches leading to unauthorized disclosure of confidential information or personal data have occurred recently at a number of major U.S. companies.
Despite our precautions, an electronic security breach in our systems (or in the systems of third parties with which we do business) that results in the unauthorized release of personally identifiable information regarding customers, employees or other individuals or other sensitive data could nonetheless lead to a serious disruption of our operations, financial losses from remedial actions, loss of business or potential liability, including possible punitive damages. As a result of such a breach, we could also be subject to demands, claims and litigation by private parties, and investigations, related actions and penalties by regulatory authorities. Moreover, we could incur significant costs in notifying affected persons and entities and otherwise complying with the multitude of foreign, federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the unauthorized access to, or use or disclosure of, personal information. In addition, any perceived or actual unauthorized access to, or use or disclosure of, such information could harm our reputation, substantially impair our ability to attract and retain customers and have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Finally, as the regulatory environment relating to our obligations to protect such sensitive data becomes increasingly rigorous, with continually developing and growing requirements applicable to our business, compliance with those requirements could result in additional costs. A material failure on our part to comply with such requirements could subject us to regulatory sanctions, including fines and potentially lawsuits. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Failure to comply with current or future federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations and industry standards relating to privacy, data protection and consumer protection, or the expansion of current or the enactment of new laws or regulations relating to privacy, data protection and consumer protection, as well as our actual or perceived failure to comply with such laws and regulations could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
There are numerous federal, state, local and foreign laws regarding privacy and the collection, processing, storing, sharing, disclosing, using and protecting of personal information and other data. We are also subject to specific contractual requirements contained in agreements with third parties governing our use and protection of personal information and other data. We generally comply with industry standards and are subject to the terms of our privacy policy and the privacy- and security-related obligations agreed to with third parties. We strive to comply with applicable laws, policies, legal obligations and industry standards relating to privacy and data protection, to the extent possible. However, it is possible that these obligations may be interpreted and applied in new ways or in a manner that is inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another and may conflict with other rules or our practices. Additionally, new laws or regulations could be enacted with which we are not familiar or with which our practices do not comply.
23

TABLE OF CONTENTS

We expect that new industry standards, laws and regulations will continue to be proposed regarding privacy, data protection and information security in many jurisdictions, including the California Consumer Privacy Act (the “CCPA”), which came into effect on January 1, 2020, and the recently passed California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”), which amends the CCPA and has many provisions that will go into effect on January 1, 2023. Additionally, the Federal Trade Commission and many state attorneys general are interpreting federal and state consumer protection laws to impose standards for the online collection, use, dissemination and security of data. The impact of the CCPA, CPRA or other future laws, regulations and standards may have on our business is uncertain. Complying with these evolving obligations is costly. For instance, expanding definitions and interpretations of what constitutes “personal data” (or the equivalent) in the United States or other countries may increase our compliance costs and legal liability.
Any failure, or perceived failure, by us to comply with any federal, state, local or foreign privacy or consumer protection-related laws, regulations or other principles or orders to which we may be subject or other legal obligations relating to privacy or consumer protection could adversely affect our reputation, brand and business, and may result in claims, investigations, proceedings or actions against us by governmental entities or others or other penalties or liabilities or require us to change our operations and/or cease using certain data sets.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
An active, liquid trading market for our common stock may not be sustained.
An active public market for our common stock may not be sustained. If an active and liquid trading market is not sustained, you may have difficulty selling or may not be able to sell any of the shares of our common stock that you purchase.
Our stock price has been volatile and may continue to be volatile or may decline regardless of our operating performance, and you may not be able to resell your shares of common stock at or above the public offering price.
Our stock price has fluctuated in the past and may continue to be volatile in the future. From April 28, 2021 to February 3, 2022, the last reported sale price of our common stock has fluctuated between $14.26 and $3.63 per share. The market price of our common stock could continue to be subject to significant fluctuations. The price of our common stock may change in response to fluctuations in our results of operations in future periods and also may change in response to other factors, including factors specific to companies in our industry. As a result, our share price may experience significant volatility and may not necessarily reflect the value of our expected performance. Among other factors that could affect our stock price are:
changes in laws or regulations applicable to our industry or offerings;
speculation about our business in the press or investment community;
price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market;
volatility in the market price and trading volume of companies in our industry or companies that investors consider comparable;
share price and volume fluctuations attributable to inconsistent trading levels of our common stock;
our ability to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights and to avoid infringement, misappropriation or violation of the intellectual property and other proprietary rights of third parties or claims by third parties of such infringement, misappropriation or violation;
sales of our common stock by us or our principal stockholders, officers and directors;
the expiration of contractual lock-up agreements;
the sustainability of an active trading market for our common stock;
success of competitive products or services;
the public’s response to press releases or other public announcements by us or others, including our filings with the SEC, announcements relating to litigation or significant changes in our key personnel;
the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting;
changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of debt or equity securities;
24

TABLE OF CONTENTS

our entry into new markets;
tax developments in the U.S. or other markets;
strategic actions by us or our competitors, such as acquisitions or restructurings; and
changes in accounting principles.
Further, the stock markets have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies. These fluctuations often have been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. In addition, the stock prices of many renewable energy companies have experienced wide fluctuations that have often been unrelated to the operating performance of those companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations, as well as general economic, political and market conditions such as recessions, interest rate changes or international currency fluctuations, may cause the market price of our common stock to decline. As a result, you may not be able to resell any of your shares of our common stock at or above the price paid.
We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future.
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock. We currently intend to retain any future earnings and do not expect to declare or pay any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any future determination to declare cash dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to applicable laws, after taking into account our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. As a result, capital appreciation in the price of our common stock, if any, may be your only source of gain on an investment in our common stock. See “Dividend Policy.”
The price of our common stock could decline if securities analysts do not publish research or if securities analysts or other third parties publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about us.
Our stock price and trading volume are heavily influenced by the way analysts and investors interpret our financial information and other disclosures. If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, delay publishing reports about our business, or publish negative reports about our business, regardless of accuracy, our common stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock depends, in part, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. Currently, several analysts cover our company. If the number of analysts that cover us declines, demand for our common stock could decrease and our common stock price and trading volume may decline.
Even if our common stock is actively covered by analysts, we do not have any control over the analysts or the measures that analysts or investors may rely upon to forecast our future results. Over-reliance by analysts or investors on any particular metric to forecast our future results may result in forecasts that differ significantly from our own.
The issuance by us of additional shares of common stock or convertible securities may dilute your ownership of us and incurrence of indebtedness may restrict our operations, both of which could adversely affect our stock price.
From time to time in the future, we may issue additional shares of our common stock or securities convertible into common stock to raise additional capital or pursuant to a variety of transactions, including acquisitions, consultant engagements and pursuant to our equity compensation plans. The issuance by us of additional shares of our common stock or securities convertible into our common stock would dilute your ownership of us and the sale of a significant amount of such shares in the public market could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. We may also seek additional capital through debt financings. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased fixed payment obligations and could involve restrictive covenants, such as limitations on our ability to incur additional debt, to make capital expenditures, to create liens, or to redeem stock or declare dividends, that could adversely impact our ability to conduct our business.
Future sales, or the perception of future sales, by us or our existing stockholders in the public market could cause the market price for our common stock to decline.
The sale of substantial amounts of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur, including pursuant to this prospectus, could harm the prevailing market price of shares of our
25

TABLE OF CONTENTS

common stock. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate.
Our directors, executive officers and principal stockholders will continue to have substantial control over our company, which could limit your ability to influence the outcome of key transactions, including a change of control.
Our directors, executive officers and each of our 5% stockholders and their affiliates, in the aggregate, beneficially own approximately 70% of the outstanding shares of our common stock, based on the number of shares outstanding as of February 4, 2022. As a result, these stockholders, if acting together, will be able to influence or control matters requiring approval by our stockholders, including the election of directors and the approval of mergers, acquisitions or other extraordinary transactions. They may also have interests that differ from yours and may vote in a way with which you disagree and which may be adverse to your interests. This concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change of control of our company, could deprive our stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their common stock as part of a sale of our company and might ultimately affect the market price of our common stock.
Anti-takeover provisions in our governing documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of us more difficult, limit attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management and depress the market price of our common stock.
Our certificate of incorporation, bylaws and Delaware law contain provisions that could have the effect of rendering more difficult, delaying or preventing an acquisition deemed undesirable by our board of directors. Among others, certificate of incorporation and include the following provisions:
a staggered board, which means that our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors with staggered three-year terms;
limitations on convening special stockholder meetings, which could make it difficult for our stockholders to adopt desired governance changes;
advance notice procedures, which apply for stockholders to nominate candidates for election as directors or to bring matters before an annual meeting of stockholders;
a prohibition on stockholder action by written consent, which means that our stockholders will only be able to take action at a meeting of stockholders;
a forum selection clause, which means certain litigation against us can only be brought in Delaware;
no authorization of cumulative voting, which limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect director candidates;
directors will only be able to be removed for cause;
certain amendments to our certificate of incorporation will require the approval of two-thirds of the then outstanding voting power of our capital stock;
the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the then outstanding voting power of our capital stock, voting as a single class, is required for stockholders to amend or adopt any provision of our bylaws; and
the authorization of undesignated or “blank check” preferred stock, the terms of which may be established and shares of which may be issued without further action by our stockholders.
In addition, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL, which generally prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in a broad range of business combinations with any “interested” stockholder for a period of three years following the date on which the stockholder becomes an “interested” stockholder. For a description of our capital stock, see “Description of Capital Stock.”
Any provision of our certificate of incorporation, bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.
26

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Our governing documents also provide that the Delaware Court of Chancery will be the sole and exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders and federal district courts will be the sole and exclusive forum for Securities Act claims, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.
Our certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent to the selection of an alternative forum, the Delaware Court of Chancery is the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or to our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the DGCL, our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws, (iv) any action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws, (v) any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine or (vi) any action asserting an “internal corporate claim” as defined in Section 115 of the DGCL; provided, however, that the exclusive forum provisions will not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act or to any claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. Our certificate of incorporation further provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts are the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a right under the Securities Act, subject to a final adjudication in the State of Delaware of the enforceability of such exclusive forum provision. We note that investors cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. The choice of forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provisions contained in our certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are an “emerging growth company” and intend to take advantage of the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies which may make our common stock less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act. As an emerging growth company, we are not required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, we have reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and we are exempt from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. Additionally, as an emerging growth company, we have elected to delay the adoption of new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until those standards apply to private companies. As such, our consolidated financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with public company effective dates. Investors may find our shares of common stock less attractive because we may rely on these provisions. If some investors find our shares of common stock less attractive as a result of the foregoing, there may be a less active trading market for our shares and our share price may be more volatile.
The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources and distract our management, which could make it difficult to manage our business, particularly after we are no longer an “emerging growth company.”
As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. These requirements may place a strain on our systems and resources. The Exchange Act requires that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and financial condition. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls over financial reporting. Section 404(a) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that, beginning with our 2022 annual report, management assess and report annually on the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting and identify any material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting. If we are unable to comply with the internal controls requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, then we may not be able to obtain the certifications required by that act, which may preclude us from keeping our filings with the SEC current, and interfere with the ability of investors to trade our securities and our ability to list our shares on any national securities exchange. To maintain and improve the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures, we have committed significant resources, hired additional staff and provided additional management oversight. We have implemented additional procedures and processes for the purpose of addressing the standards and requirements applicable to public companies. Sustaining our growth also will require us to commit additional management, operational and financial resources to identify new professionals to join our firm and to maintain appropriate operational and financial systems
27

TABLE OF CONTENTS

to adequately support expansion. These activities may divert management’s attention from other business concerns and will result in increased costs to us, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition or business.
As an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act, we may take advantage of certain temporary exemptions from various reporting requirements including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements. We have elected to delay the adoption of new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until those standards apply to private companies, as permitted by the JOBS Act.
We have identified material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting. If our remediation of such material weaknesses is not effective, or if we experience additional material weaknesses or otherwise fail to design and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting, our ability to timely and accurately report our financial condition and results of operations or comply with applicable laws and regulations could be impaired, which may adversely affect investor confidence in us and, as a result, the market price of our common stock.
As a public company, our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal controls over financial reporting. Internal controls over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal controls over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.
During the course of preparing for our IPO, we determined that we had material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020. Specifically, in connection with the preparation of our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019, we identified certain control deficiencies in the design and operation of our internal controls over financial reporting that constituted the following material weaknesses:
We did not have a sufficient complement of experienced personnel with the requisite technical knowledge of public company accounting and reporting and for non-routine, unusual or complex transactions. This material weakness contributed to the following material weakness.
We did not design and maintain adequate controls over the period-end close and financial reporting process including establishment of accounting policies and procedures, certain account reconciliations, cut-off, segregation of duties, journal entries and financial statement preparation. This material weakness contributed to material adjustments in the 2019 consolidated financial statements principally, but not limited to, in the following areas: definite-lived intangibles, warranty obligation, cut-off of revenue transactions and related cost of sales. This material weakness also contributed to misstatements in our stock-based compensation and weighted-average common shares outstanding, which led to the revision of our consolidated financial statements as of June 30, 2021 and for the three and six months period then ended.
We did not design and maintain effective information technology general controls over the IT systems used for preparation of the financial statements. Specifically, we did not design and maintain (i) program change management controls to ensure that information technology program and data changes affecting financial IT applications and underlying accounting records are identified, tested, authorized and implemented appropriately; (ii) user access controls to ensure appropriate segregation of duties and that adequately restrict user and privileged access to financial applications, programs and data to appropriate Company personnel; and (iii) testing and approval controls for program development to ensure that new software development is aligned with business and IT requirements.
Although there were no material adjustments to the 2019 and 2020 consolidated financial statements as a result of IT deficiencies, these IT deficiencies, when aggregated, could impact the effectiveness of IT-dependent controls (such as automated controls that address the risk of material misstatement to one or more assertions, along with the IT controls and underlying data that support the effectiveness of
28

TABLE OF CONTENTS

system-generated data and reports) that could result in misstatements potentially impacting all financial statement accounts and disclosures that would not be prevented or detected. Accordingly, we have determined that these IT deficiencies in the aggregate constitute a material weakness.
Additionally, the above material weaknesses could result in a misstatement of the aforementioned account balances or disclosures that would result in a material misstatement of the annual or interim financial statements that would not be prevented or detected.
To address our material weaknesses, we have implemented and continue to implement a remediation plan. We have added key personnel with requisite technical knowledge of public company accounting including a Director of SEC Reporting and Technical Accounting and a Director of Tax Accounting and Reporting. We also hired an experienced Director of Internal Audit that reports directly to the audit committee of our board of directors. We hired a Director of Information Technology to strengthen our information technology infrastructure. During 2021, we implemented Blackline account reconciliation tool, and ensured segregation of duties for journal entries and account reconciliations. We have been formalizing documentation of accounting and IT policies and internal controls. In addition, a disclosure committee charter was established, and several training sessions related to internal controls and disclosure controls were provided. While we believe these efforts will improve our internal control over financial reporting, the implementation and validation of our remediation is ongoing and may not be sufficient to remediate these weaknesses or to avoid the identification of material weaknesses in the future, which could impair our ability to accurately and timely report our financial position, results of operations or cash flows, including our filing of quarterly or annual reports with the SEC. Moreover, our failure to remediate the material weaknesses identified above or the identification of additional material weaknesses could prohibit us from producing timely and accurate financial statements, which may adversely affect the market price of our common stock and we could become subject to litigation or investigations by the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, the SEC, or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.
29

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains forward-looking statements. All statements other than statements of historical or current facts contained in this prospectus may be forward-looking statements. Statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, business strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations, including, among others, statements regarding the offering, liquidity, growth and profitability strategies and factors and trends affecting our business are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements can be identified in some cases by the use of words such as “believe,” “can,” “could,” “potential,” “plan,” “predict,” “goals,” “seek,” “should,” “may,” “may have,” “would,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “expect,” the negative of these words, other similar expressions or by discussions of strategy, plans or intentions.
The forward-looking statements in this prospectus are only predictions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements, or industry results, to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. We believe that these factors include, but are not limited to, the factors set forth under the heading “Risk Factors.” Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements.
In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.
You should read this prospectus and the documents that we reference in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part with the understanding that our actual future results, levels of activity, performance and achievements may be materially different from what we expect. All forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by these cautionary statements.
These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this prospectus. Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus after we distribute this prospectus, whether as a result of any new information, future events or otherwise.
30

TABLE OF CONTENTS

USE OF PROCEEDS
All of the shares of common stock sold pursuant to this prospectus will be offered and sold by the selling stockholders. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of common stock offered by the selling stockholders.
31

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DIVIDEND POLICY
We have not declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock since our inception. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business, and therefore we do not expect to declare or pay any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any future determination as to the declaration and payment of dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to applicable laws, and will depend on a number of factors, including our financial condition, results of operations, prospects, cash requirements and availability, debt repayment obligations, capital expenditure needs, contractual restrictions, covenants in the agreements governing our current and future indebtedness, industry trends, the provisions of Delaware law affecting the payment of dividends and distributions to stockholders and any other factors or considerations our board of directors may regard as relevant.
Our ability to pay dividends may also be restricted by the terms of any credit agreement or any future debt or preferred equity securities of us or our subsidiaries. Accordingly, you may need to sell your shares of our common stock to realize a return on your investment, and you may not be able to sell your shares at or above the price you paid for them. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock—We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future.”
32

TABLE OF CONTENTS

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 and for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2021 should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and our unaudited consolidated financial statements, as applicable, and the related notes and other information included elsewhere in this prospectus. The following discussion is accurate only as of the date of the release of our audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2020 or the date of the release of our unaudited consolidated financial statements for the quarter ended September 30, 2021, as applicable (or as of an earlier date of any such information as may be stated therein). This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to those differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below and those discussed in the sections titled “Risk Factors” and “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” included elsewhere in this prospectus. Additionally, our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in any future period.
Overview
We are a global provider of advanced solar tracker systems. Our trackers are supported by proprietary software designed to increase energy production yield from our tracker systems. We also support our customers in project design and development by providing value-added engineering services that assist customers in optimizing our products and reducing total project costs. Our mission is to provide differentiated products, software and services that maximize energy generation and cost savings for our customers. We believe achieving our mission will help facilitate the continued growth and adoption of solar power globally. Trackers significantly increase the amount of solar energy produced at a solar installation by moving solar panels throughout the day to maintain an optimal orientation relative to the sun. Our systems offer efficiency gains relative to other tracker systems due to their enhanced design, which includes a two-panel in-portrait format and independent rows, and its optimization for use with bifacial panels. Additionally, these efficiency gains can be enhanced by our proprietary software solutions. Our customers include leading project developers, solar asset owners and EPC contractors that design and build solar energy projects. Our team of experienced renewable energy professionals is focused on delivering compelling value to customers across the full solar energy project lifecycle, including at the development, construction and operations phases.
Our corporate headquarters and testing lab are located in Austin, Texas, and we have training and technology development sites in Aurora, Colorado and Chennai, India. To assist with our global expansion effort, we have grown our sales and support network abroad, with employees located in Australia, Canada, India, the Middle East, China, Europe, South Africa, and South-East Asia as of September 30, 2021. As of September 30, 2021, we had 216 full-time employees.
We currently offer tracking and software solutions targeting the utility-scale solar energy markets to current and potential customers in the United States, Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, Europe, South America and Australia. In both 2019 and 2020 and for the nine months ended September 30, 2021, we derived substantially all of our revenue from EPC contractors, project developers and solar asset owners in the United States. The solar industry continues to experience higher commodities and logistics costs. These increased input costs result in downward pressure on our margins. AD/CVD investigations or similar actions or lawsuits in the future have and could continue to cause uncertainty in the global solar market and cause the shipment of our products to be delayed during such uncertainty. WRO actions, as well as other governmental actions that have or may impact the importation of solar panels, have and could continue to negatively impact the global solar market and the timing and viability of solar projects to which we sell our products. We are taking meaningful action to further diversify our supply chain and accelerate both our product and cost roadmap to mitigate the impact of these cost increases and supply chain disruptions to our business and provide compelling solutions for our customers. At the end of the third quarter 2021, we hired a new CEO to accelerate our growth and profitability. We have maintained focus on our growth strategy throughout the quarter ended September 30, 2021 and experienced growth in our contracted and awarded projects which we believe will produce revenue growth in 2022. We have secured several international project awards and a multi project transaction to provide trackers for 1.7 GW of projects in development by a leading project developer. As part of the multi project transaction, we intend to make a limited amount of development capital available to some of these projects in the future. We also added another order of our SunPath performance enhancing software product which we introduced at the end of 2020. Our SunPath product boosts project energy production yield and our solution is differentiated from
33

TABLE OF CONTENTS

other products in the marketplace by eliminating row-to-row shading, optimizing capture of diffuse light and increasing the system yield. We estimate this enables customers to achieve up to a 6% increase in energy yield at a solar installation.
We also launched a large format module tracker system in January 2021 which is currently being utilized by various customers. To meet market demand for large format modules, we are providing tracker systems that are compatible with a wide variety of module sizes and configurations, while maintaining the format and installation speed for in portrait orientation. We are committed to providing innovative solutions designed to benefit our customers and deliver value.
Key Factors Affecting Our Performance
Investment in Technology and Personnel. We invest in both the people and technology behind our products. We intend to continue making significant investments in the technology for our products and expansion of our patent portfolio to attract and retain customers, expand the capabilities and scope of our products, and enhance user experience. We also intend to make significant investments to attract and retain employees in key positions, including sales leads, engineers, software developers, quality assurance personnel, supply chain personnel, product management, and operations personnel, to help us drive additional efficiencies across our marketplace and, in the case of sales leads, to continue to enhance and diversify our sales capabilities, including international expansion.
Megawatts Shipped and Average Selling Price. The primary operating metric we use to evaluate our sales performance and to track market acceptance of our products is the change in quantity of megawatts (MW) shipped from period to period. MW are measured for each individual project and are calculated based on the expected output of that project once installed and fully operational. We also utilize metrics related to price and cost of goods sold per MW, including the change in average selling price (“ASP”) from period to period and cost per megawatt. ASP is calculated by dividing total revenue by total MW and cost per watt is calculated by dividing total costs of goods sold by total MW. These metrics enable us to evaluate trends in pricing, manufacturing cost and profitability. Events such as the COVID-19 pandemic can impact the U.S. economy, global supply chains, and our business. These impacts can cause significant shipping delays and price increases and also raise the price of inputs like steel, affecting our cost per watt.
Government Regulations. Changes in the U.S. trade environment, including the imposition of import tariffs, AD/CVD investigations and WROs directed at forced labor in China, affect the amount and timing of our revenue, results of operations and cash flows. Escalating trade tensions, particularly between the United States and China, have led to increased tariffs and trade restrictions, including tariffs applicable to certain raw materials and components for our products. We have taken measures with the intention of mitigating the effect of tariffs, AD/CVD and WROs on our business by reducing our reliance on China. In 2019, 90% of our supply chain was sourced from China. As of September 30, 2021, we have qualified suppliers outside of China for all our commodities and reduced the extent to which our supply chain for U.S.-based projects is subject to existing tariffs. We have entered into partnerships with manufacturers in the United States, Mexico, Canada, Spain, Brazil, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, India, China, Vietnam and Korea to diversify our supply chain and optimize costs.
Disruptions in Transportation and Supply Chain. Our costs are affected by the underlying costs of raw materials including steel, component costs including motors and micro-chips and transportations costs. Current market conditions that constrain supply of materials and disrupt the flow of materials from international vendors impacts the cost of our products and services. We have also seen increases in domestic transportation costs. These cost increases impact our margins. We are taking steps to expand and diversify our manufacturing partnerships and we are implementing alternative modes of transportation to mitigate the impacts of these current headwinds in the global supply chain and logistics market. We also have a sharp focus on our design to value initiative to improve margin by reducing manufacturing and material costs of our products.
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic
In March of 2020, the World Health Organization declared that the worldwide spread and severity of a new coronavirus, referred to as COVID-19, was severe enough to be characterized as a pandemic. In response to the continued spread of COVID-19, governmental authorities in the United States and around the world have imposed various restrictions designed to slow the pace of the pandemic, including restrictions on travel and other restrictions that prohibit employees from going to work, including in cities where we have offices, employees, and customers, causing severe disruptions in the worldwide economy. The broader implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on our
34

TABLE OF CONTENTS

business, financial condition and results of operations remain uncertain and will depend on certain developments, including the duration and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, the impact of virus variants, the rate of vaccinations, the COVID-19 pandemic’s impact on our customers and suppliers and the range of governmental and community reactions to the pandemic. While our day-to-day operations have been affected, the impact has been less pronounced as most of our staff has worked remotely and continued to develop our product offerings, source materials and install our products. However, we have experienced significant supply chain disruptions that have caused delays in product deliveries due to diminished vessel capacity and port detainment of vessels as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic (including as a result of multiple COVID-19 variants), which have contributed to an increase in lead times for delivery of our tracker systems. For instance, we experienced a COVID-related supplier production slowdown in India at the end of March 2021, which continued through 2021 due to the emergence of the Omicron variant. The reduced capacity for logistics is also causing increases in logistics costs. Additionally, ground operations at project sites have been impacted by health-related restrictions, shelter-in-place orders and worker absenteeism, which resulted in delays in project completions in 2020, and these restrictions have also hindered our ability to provide on-site support to our customers and conduct inspections of our contract manufacturers. The disruptions in the global supply chain have resulted in extended lead times for some of our component parts. Management will continue to monitor the impact of the global situation on our financial condition, cash flows, operations, contract manufacturers, industry, workforce and customer relationships.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Non-GAAP Net Loss and Adjusted Non-GAAP Net Loss Per Share (“Adjusted EPS”)
We present Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Non-GAAP Net Loss and Adjusted EPS as supplemental measures of our performance. We define Adjusted EBITDA as net loss plus (i) income tax (benefit) or expense, (ii) interest expense, (iii) depreciation expense, (iv) amortization of intangibles, (v) amortization of debt issuance costs, (vi) stock-based compensation (vii) gain on extinguishment of debt, (viii) gain from disposal in equity investment, (ix) non-routine legal fees, (x) severance, (xi) other costs and (xii) loss from unconsolidated subsidiary. We define Adjusted Non-GAAP Net Loss as net loss plus (i) amortization of intangibles, (ii) amortization of debt issuance costs (iii) stock-based compensation, (iv) gain on extinguishment of debt, (v) gain from disposal of equity investment, (vi) non-routine legal fees, (vii) severance, (viii) other costs, (ix) loss from unconsolidated subsidiary and (x) income tax expense of adjustments. Adjusted EPS is defined as Adjusted Non-GAAP Net Loss Per Share using the weighted average basic and diluted shares outstanding.
Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Non-GAAP Net Loss and Adjusted EPS are intended as supplemental measures of performance that are neither required by, nor presented in accordance with, U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). We present Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Non-GAAP Net Loss and Adjusted EPS because we believe they assist investors and analysts in comparing our performance across reporting periods on an ongoing basis by excluding items that we do not believe are indicative of our core operating performance. In addition, we use Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Non-GAAP Net Loss and Adjusted EPS to evaluate the effectiveness of our business strategies.
Among other limitations, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Non-GAAP Net Loss, and Adjusted EPS do not reflect (i) our cash expenditures, or future requirements, for capital expenditures or contractual commitments, and (ii) the impact of certain cash charges resulting from matters we consider not to be indicative of our ongoing operations. Further, the adjustments noted in Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect the impact of any income tax expense or benefit. Additionally, other companies in our industry may calculate Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Non-GAAP Net Loss, and Adjusted EPS differently than we do, which limits its usefulness as a comparative measure.
Because of these limitations, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Non-GAAP Net Loss and Adjusted EPS should not be considered in isolation or as substitutes for performance measures calculated in accordance with GAAP and you should not rely on any single financial measure to evaluate our business. These non-GAAP financial measures, when presented, are reconciled to the most closely applicable GAAP measure as disclosed below.
Revision of Previously Issued Financial Statements
In connection with the preparation of our financial statements as of and for the three months ended September 30, 2021, we identified an error in the basic and diluted earnings per share calculation for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021. The revisions for the stock-based compensation did not have any impact on
35

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Non-GAAP Adjusted EBITDA or Adjusted Non-GAAP Net Loss. However, the adjustment to the weighted average shares outstanding did have an impact to the Adjusted EPS. The Adjusted EPS as previously reported was $(0.21) and $(0.32) loss per share for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and after the revision the Adjusted EPS increased to $(0.19) and $(0.31) loss per share for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021. (See Footnote 2. to our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements included herein.)
The following table reconciles net loss to Adjusted EBITDA for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 and the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2021, respectively:
 
Years Ended
December 31,
Three Months Ended
September 30
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
2019
2020
2020
2021
2020
2021
 
(in thousands)
Net loss
$(13,495)
$(15,924)
$(2,840)
$(22,916)
$(6,196)
$(82,707)
Income tax (benefit) expense
(39)
(83)
24
41
(115)
137
Interest expense, net
454
364
70
128
303
227
Depreciation expense
12
13
3
53
10
95
Amortization of intangibles
400
33
33
Amortization of debt issuance costs
 
173
288
Stock-based compensation
906
1,818
448
5,381
1,381
58,531
(Gain) loss on extinguishment of debt(a)
116
34
75
(790)
Non-routine legal fees(b)
988
1,763
Severance(c)
295
Other costs(d)
270
3,135
(Gain) from disposal of unconsolidated subsidiary
(210)
(20,829)
Loss (Income) from unconsolidated subsidiary(e)
709
(1,399)
186
345
354
Adjusted EBITDA
$(11,053)
$(15,062)
$(2,075)
$(16,092)
$(4,164)
$(39,501)
(a)
The gain on extinguishment of debt for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 resulted from forgiveness of a loan under SBA’s PPP. See “Note-8 Debt and Other Borrowings”.
(b)
Represents legal fees incurred that were not ordinary or routine to the operations of the business.
(c)
Represents severance accrued related to an agreement with an employee due to restructuring changes.
(d)
Represents consulting fees in connection with operations and finance and other costs associated with our IPO and one-time CEO transition cost.
(e)
Represents results of an entity that we do not consolidate, as our management excludes these results when evaluating our operating performance.
The following table reconciles Net loss to Adjusted Non-GAAP Net Loss and Adjusted EPS for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 and the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2021, respectively. All shares and per share amounts have been adjusted for an approximately 8.25-for-1 share forward stock split which took effect on April 28, 2021:
 
Years Ended
December 31,
Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
2019
2020
2020
2021
2020
2021
 
Loss
EPS
Loss
EPS
Loss
EPS
Loss
EPS
Loss
EPS
Loss
EPS
 
(in thousands, except per share data)
Net loss and EPS (basic & diluted)
$(13,495)
$(0.22)
$(15,924)
$(0.23)
$(2,840)
$(0.04)
$(22,916)
$(0.24)
$(6,196)
$(0.09)
$(82,707)
$(1.00)
Amortization of intangibles
400
0.01
33
 
 
33
 
 
Amortization of debt issuance costs
 
173
 
 
288
 
Stock-based compensation
906
0.01
1,818
0.03
448
0.01
5,381
0.06
1,381
0.02
58,531
0.71
36

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
Years Ended
December 31,
Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
2019
2020
2020
2021
2020
2021
 
Loss
EPS
Loss
EPS
Loss
EPS
Loss
EPS
Loss
EPS
Loss
EPS
 
(in thousands, except per share data)
(Gain) loss from extinguishment of debt(a)
34
 
75
(790)
0.01
(Gain) from disposal of equity investment
 
 
 
 
 
(210)
 
(20,829)
(0.25)
Non-routine legal fees(b)
 
 
 
 
 
988
0.01
 
1,763
0.02
Severance(c)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
295
Other costs(d)
 
 
 
 
 
270
 
3,135
0.03
Loss (Income) from unconsolidated subsidiary(e)
709
0.01
(1,399)
(0.02)
186
345
354
Income tax expense of adjustments(f)
3
(3)
(3)
Adjusted Non-GAAP Net Loss and Adjusted EPS
$(11,477)
$(0.18)
$(15,475)
$(0.22)
$(2,172)
$(0.03)
$(16,314)
$(0.17)
$(4,365)
$(0.06)
$(39,960)
$(0.48)
(a)
The gain on extinguishment of debt for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 resulted from forgiveness of a loan under SBA’s PPP.
(b)
Represents legal fees incurred that were not ordinary or routine to the operations of the business.
(c)
Represents severance accrued related to an agreement with an employee due to restructuring changes.
(d)
Represents consulting fees in connection with operations and finance and other costs associated with our IPO and one-time CEO transition cost.
(e)
Represents results of an entity that we do not consolidate, as our management excludes these results when evaluating our operating performance.
(f)
Represents incremental tax expense of adjustments made to reconcile Net Loss to Adjusted Non-GAAP Net Loss driven from loss from unconsolidated subsidiary.
Key Components of Our Results of Operations
The following discussion describes certain line items in our consolidated statements of operations.
Revenue
We generate our revenue in two streams — Product revenue and Service revenue. Product revenue is derived from the sale of Voyager Trackers, customized components of Voyager Trackers, individual part sales for certain specific transactions and sale of term-based software licenses. Revenue from the sale of Voyager Trackers and customized components of Voyager Trackers is recognized over time as work progresses, utilizing an input measure of progress determined by cost incurred to date relative to total expected cost on these projects to correlate with our performance in transferring control over Voyager Trackers and its components. Revenue from the sale of a Voyager Tracker’s individual parts is recognized point-in-time as and when control transfers based on the terms of the contract. Revenue from sale of term-based software licenses is recognized upon transfer of control to the customer. Service revenue includes revenue from shipping and handling services, subscription-based enterprise licensing model and maintenance and support services in connection with the term-based software licenses. Revenue for shipping and handling services is recognized over time based on shipping terms of the arrangements. Subscription revenue, which is derived from a subscription-based enterprise licensing model, and support revenue, which is derived from ongoing security updates and maintenance, are each generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the contract.
Our customers include project developers, solar asset owners and EPC contractors that design and build solar energy projects. For each individual solar project, we enter into a contract with a customer covering the price, specifications, delivery dates and warranty for the products being purchased, among other things. Our contractual delivery period for Voyager Trackers and related parts can vary between twelve weeks and 23 weeks. Contracts can range in value from tens of thousands to tens of millions of dollars.
Our revenue is affected by changes in the volume and ASP of our solar tracking systems purchased by our customers and volume of sales of software products and engineering services, among other things. The ASP of our
37

TABLE OF CONTENTS

solar tracker systems and quarterly volume of sales is driven by the supply of, and demand for, our products, changes in product mix, geographic mix of our customers, strength of competitors’ product offerings and availability of government incentives to the end-users of our products. Additionally, our revenue may be impacted by seasonality and variability related to ITC step-downs and construction activity as well as inclement weather conditions.
Our revenue growth is dependent on continued growth in the number of solar tracker projects, software sales and engineering services we win in competitive bidding processes. Our growth targets are impacted by our ability to increase our market share in each of the geographies in which we currently compete and to expand our global footprint to new emerging markets. To support this planned growth, we must grow our production capabilities to meet demand and continue to develop and introduce new and innovative products that address the changing technology and performance requirements of our customers.
Cost of Revenue and Gross Profit
Cost of revenue consists primarily of Voyager Trackers’ raw material costs, including purchased components, as well as costs related to freight and delivery, product warranty, supply chain personnel and consultants, insurance, and customer support. Personnel costs include both direct labor costs as well as costs attributable to any individuals whose activities relate to the procurement, installation and delivery of the finished product and provision of services.
We subcontract to third party contract manufacturers to manufacture and deliver our products directly to our customers. Our product costs are affected by the underlying cost of raw materials procured by these contract manufacturers, including steel and aluminum; component costs, including electric motors and gearboxes; technological innovation in manufacturing processes; and our ability to achieve economies of scale resulting in lower component costs. We do not currently utilize financial hedges against changes in the price of raw materials, but we continue to explore opportunities to mitigate the risks of foreign currency and commodity fluctuations through the use of hedges and foreign exchange lines of credit. The industry is currently experiencing rising steel and logistics costs. We do not have any multi-year contracts with customers that contain fixed pricing, so we are not exposed to steel price fluctuations that would require utilizing financial hedges. We fix our steel input prices as close to signing a customer purchase order as possible. We continue to expand our global supply chain which improves our ability to secure necessary supplies and further diversifies us on key components and positions us with additional flexibility moving forward.
Gross profit may vary from quarter-to-quarter and is primarily affected by our volume of MW shipped, ASP, product costs, product mix, customer mix, geographical mix, shipping method and costs, warranty costs, personnel costs and seasonality.
Operating Expenses
Operating expenses consist of research and development expenses, selling and marketing expenses and general and administrative expenses. Personnel-related costs are the most significant component of our operating expenses and include salaries, benefits, bonuses, commissions and stock-based compensation expenses.
Our full-time employee headcount in research and development, selling and marketing and general and administrative capacities has grown as we invested in new employees to support our growth and operations as a publicly traded company.
The timing of these additional hires could materially affect our operating expenses in any particular period, both in absolute dollars and as a percentage of revenue. We expect to continue to invest substantial resources to support our growth and anticipate that each of the following categories of operating expenses will increase in absolute dollar amounts for the foreseeable future.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses consist primarily of salaries, employee benefits, stock-based compensation expenses and travel expenses related to our engineers performing research and development activities to originate, develop and enhance our products. Additional expenses include consulting charges, component purchases, legal fees for registering patents and other costs for performing research and development on our software products.
38

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Selling and Marketing Expenses
Selling and marketing expenses consist primarily of salaries, employee benefits, stock-based compensation expenses and travel expenses related to our selling and marketing and business development personnel. Additionally, selling and marketing expenses include costs associated with professional fees and support charges for software subscriptions and licenses, trade shows and conventions.
We expect an increase in the number of selling and marketing personnel in connection with the expansion of our global selling and marketing footprint as we enter new markets. The majority of our selling and marketing expenses for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 were related to sales to customers in the United States and business development in other parts of the world. As of September 30, 2021, we have a sales presence in the United States, Australia, India, the Middle East, China, Europe, South Africa, and South-East Asia. We intend to continue to expand our sales presence and marketing efforts to additional countries.
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries, employee benefits, stock-based compensation, and travel related to our executives, finance team, and administrative employees. It also consists of legal, consulting, and professional fees, rent and lease expenses pertaining to our international offices, business insurance and other costs. We have and will continue to incur additional audit, tax, accounting, legal and other costs related to compliance with applicable securities and other regulations, as well as additional insurance, investor relations and other costs associated with being a public company.
Non-Operating Expenses and Other Items
Interest Expense
Interest expense for the nine months ended September 30, 2021, consists of commitment fees related to a revolving credit facility we entered into in April 2021, amortization of debt issuance costs and interest expense related to a revolving line of credit with Western Alliance Bank, which was paid off during the quarter ended March 31, 2021.
Gain on extinguishment of debt
Gain on extinguishment of debt is the result of a forgiveness of a loan effective January 20, 2021 (See “— Debt Obligations” below) under the SBA’s Paycheck Protection Program (PPP).
Income Taxes
Provision for income taxes consists primarily of income taxes related to foreign and state jurisdictions in which we conduct business.
Gain on disposal in equity investment
Gain on disposal in equity investment resulted from the Company disposing of its approximate 23% non-controlling interest in Dimension Energy, LLC.
Loss from Unconsolidated Subsidiary
Loss from unconsolidated subsidiary represents our allocated net loss arising from our equity method investment in Dimension Energy, LLC through the disposal date.
39

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Results of Operations
The following tables set forth our consolidated statement of operations as well as other financial data management considers meaningful for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020 and the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2021. We have derived this data from our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. This information should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. The results of historical periods are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations for any future period.
 
Years Ended
December 31,
Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
2019
2020
2020
2021
2020
2021
 
(dollars in thousands, except per share data)
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product revenue
$43,085
$158,925
$48,879
$45,582
122,197
137,799
Service revenue
10,039
28,427
10,761
7,407
20,976
31,005
Total revenue
53,124
187,352
59,640
52,989
143,173
168,804
Cost of Revenue
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product cost of revenue
44,212
155,967
46,513
48,090
114,883
146,964
Service cost of revenue
10,863
27,746
10,261
12,938
19,826
45,810
Total cost of revenue
55,075
183,713
56,774
61,028
134,709
192,774
Gross (loss) profit
(1,951)
3,639
2,866
(8,039)
8,464
(23,970)
Operating expenses
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development(a)
3,960
5,222
1,438
2,116
4,047
9,653
Selling and marketing(a)
1,897
3,545
1,041
2,224
2,374
6,421
General and administrative(a)
4,563
11,798
2,912
10,392
7,630
63,217
Total operating expenses
10,420
20,565
5,391
14,732
14,051
79,291
Loss from operations
(12,371)
(16,926)
(2,525)
(22,771)
(5,587)
(103,261)
Interest expense, net
454
480
(70)
(301)
(303)
(515)
Gain from disposal in equity investment
210
20,829
Gain (loss) on extinguishment of debt
(34)
(75)
790
Other expense
(1)
(13)
(1)
(59)
Loss before income taxes
(12,825)
(17,406)
(2,630)
(22,875)
(5,966)
(82,216)
(Expense) benefit from income taxes
(39)
(83)
(24)
(41)
115
(137)
Loss (Income) from unconsolidated subsidiary
709
(1,399)
(186)
(345)
(354)
Net loss
$(13,495)
$(15,924)
$(2,840)
$(22,916)
$(6,196)
$(82,707)
Other comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation adjustments
(3)
(12)
3
(20)
9
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Comprehensive loss
$(13,495)
$(15,927)
$(2,852)
$(22,913)
$(6,216)
$(82,698)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-GAAP Measures
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adjusted EBITDA
$(11,053)
$(15,062)
$(2,075)
$(16,092)
$(4,164)
$(39,501)
Adjusted Non-GAAP Net Loss
$(11,477)
$(15,475)
$(2,172)
$(16,314)
$(4,365)
$(39,960)
Adjusted EPS
$(0.18)
$(0.22)
$(0.03)
$(0.17)
$(0.06)
$(0.48)
(a)
Includes stock-based compensation expense as follows:
 
Years Ended
December 31,
Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
2019
2020
2020
2021
2020
2021
Cost of revenue
$176
$322
$80
$342
$244
$7,571
Research and development
51
57
16
200
47
3,925
40

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
Years Ended
December 31,
Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
2019
2020
2020
2021
2020
2021
Selling and marketing
26
38
9
1,135
28
2,942
General and administrative
653
1,401
343
3,704
1,062
44,093
Total stock-based compensation expense
$906
$1,818
$448
$5,381
$1,381
$58,531
 
Years Ended
December 31,
Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
2019
2020
2020
2021
2020
2021
 
(as a percentage of revenue)
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product revenue
81%
85%
82%
86%
85%
82%
Service revenue
19
15
18
14
15
18
Total revenue
100
100
100
100
100
100
Cost of revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product cost of revenue
83
83
78
91
80
87
Service cost of revenue
20
15
17
24
14
27
Total cost of revenue
104
98
95
115
94
114
Gross (loss) profit
(4)
2
5
(15)
6
(14)
Operating expenses
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development
7
3
2
4
3
6
Selling and marketing
4
2
2
4
2
4
General and administrative
9
6
5
20
5
37
Total operating expenses
20
11
9
28
10
47
Loss from operations
(24)
(9)
(4)
(43)
(4)
(61)